You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 on the following pages

Questions 27-32

Reading Passage 3 has seven paragraphs, A-G.

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs B-G from the list of headings below Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.


List of Headings


i The biological clock

ii Why dying is beneficial

iii The ageing process of men and women

iv Prolonging your life

V Limitations of life span

vi Modes of development of different species

vii A stable life span despite improvements

vili Energy consumption

ix Fundamental differences in ageing of objects

and organisms

x Repair of genetic material


Example       Answer

Paragraph A      V


27 Paragraph B

28 Paragraph C

29 Paragraph D

30 Paragraph E

31 Paragraph F

32 Paragraph G





Our life span is restricted. Everyone accepts this as 'biologically' obvious.

Nothing lives for ever!'However,in this statement we think of artificially oroduced, technical objects, products which are subjected to natural wear and tear during use. This leads to the result that at some time or other the object stops working and is unusable ('death' in the biological sense). But are the wear and tear and loss of function of technical objects and the death of living organisms really similar or comparable?



Our'dead' products are 'static', closed systems. It is always the basic material which constitutes the object and which, in the natural course of things, is worn down and becomes ' older' . Ageing in this case must occur according to the laws of physical chemistry and of thermodynamics. Although the same law holds for a living organism, the result of this law is not inexorable in the same way At least as long as a biological system has the ability to renew itself it could actually become older without ageing; an organism is an open, dynamic system through which new material continuously flows. Destruction of old material and formation of new material are thus in permanent dynamic equilibrium The material of which the organism is formed changes continuously . Thus our bodies continuously exchange old substance for new, just like a spring which more or less maintains its form and movement, but in which the water molecules are always different .



Thus ageing and death should not be seen as inevitable, particularly as the organism possesses many mechanisms for repair. It is not, in principle necessary for a biological system to age and die. Nevertheless a restricted life span, ageing, and then death are basic characteristics of life. The reason for this is easy to recognise: in nature, the existent organisms either adapt or are regularly replaced by new types. Because of changes in the genetic material(mutations) these have new characteristics and in the course of their individual lives they are tested for optimal or better adaptation to the environmental conditions. Immortality would disturb this system-it needs room for new and better life. This is the basic problem of evolution.



Every organism has a life span which is highly characteristic. There are striking differences in life span between different species, but within one species the parameter is relatively constant. For example, the average duration of human life has hardly changed in thousands of years. Although more and more people attain an advanced age as a result of developments in medical care and better nutrition, the characteristic upper limit for most remains 80 years. A furthe argument against the simple v ar and tear theory is the observation that the time within which organisms age lies between a few days (even a few hours for unicellular organisms) and several thousand years, as with mammoth trees.



If a life span is a genetically determined biological characteristic, it is logically necessary to propose the existence of an internal clock, which in some way measures and controls the ageing process and which finally determines death as the last step in a fixed programme. Like the life span, the metabolic rate has for different organisms a fixed mathematical relationship to the body mass. In comparison to the life span this relationship is 'inverted': the larger the organism the lower its metabolic rate. Again this relationship is valid not only for birds,but also, similarly on average within the systematic unit, for all other organisms(plants, animals, unicellular organisms).



Animals which behave frugally' with energy become particularly old, fol example, crocodiles and tortoises. Parrots and birds of prey are often held chained up. Thus they are not able to 'experience life' and so they attain a high life span in captivity. Animals which save energy by hibernation or lethargy(e.g. bats or hedgehogs) live much longer than those which are always active The metabolic rate of mice can be reduced by a very low consumption of food(hunger diet). They then may live twice as long as their well fed comrades.Women become distinctly (about 10 per cent) older than men. If you examine the metabolic rates of the two sexes you establish that the higher male metabolic rate roughly accounts for the lower male life span. That means that they live life ' energetically' - more intensively , but not for as long .



It follows from the above that sparing use of energy reserves should tend to extend life. Extreme high performance sports may lead to optimal cardiovascular performance, but they quite certainly do not prolong life.

Relaxation lowers metabolic rate, as does adequate sleep and in general an equable and balanced personality. Each of us can develop his or her own' energy saving programme' with a little self-observation , critical self-control and ,above all, logical consistency. Experience will show that to live in this way not only increases the life span but is also very healthy. This final aspect should not be forgotten.


Questions 33-36

Complete the notes below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 33-36 on your answer sheet.

· Objects age in accordance with principles of 33.........and of 34........

·Through mutations,organisms can 35...........36............


Questions 37-40

Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 3?In boxes 37-40 on your answer sheet, write.


YES            if the statement agrees with the views of the writer

NO            if the statement contradicts the views of the writer

NOT GIVEN     if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this


37 The wear and tear theory applies to both artificial objects and biological systems.

38 In principle, it is possible for a biological system to become older without ageing.

39 Within seven years, about 90 per cent of a human body is replaced as new.

40 Conserving energy may help to extend a human's life.








A 我们的生命是有限的,这个在生物学上显而易见的观点没人会有异议。。




B 我们“死亡的”产品是一些“静态的”封闭系统。27一直以来,总是构成物体的一些基本材料会自然遭受损耗,并且“老化”。据物理化学和热力学法则可知,此种情况必然会产生老化现象。3334中尽管这些法则也同样适用于生物体,但结果并非同样不可阻挡。37至少只要生物系统能够自我更新,它就可以实实在在地成长而并不老化:24生物系统是开放、动态的25,这个系统可以使新物质源源不断地流动。这样一来,旧物质的灭亡和新物质的产生便会处于永久的动态平衡中。生成有机体的物质持续变化,致使我们体内新旧物质也不断交替就像喷泉一样,它的形态和运动状态基本保持不变,但水分子却总不相同。




D 每个生物体都有一个典型的寿命。主不同的物种之间的寿命长短更是千差万别,但同类物种之间,这个参数则相对稳定28比如说,几千年来的人类平均寿命几乎没什么变化。尽管随着医疗保健的发展和膳食营养的改善,高龄人群越来越多,29但对多数人而言,人类的平均寿命至多仍然只有80岁。而另一个反对这种简单磨损理论的观察报告指出,生物体衰老的时间或者只有短短几天(单细胞生物甚至只有几小时),或者可达数千年,比如巨杉。


E 如果说寿命长短是由基因决定的生物特性,主那么逻辑上来讲我们就有必要提出生物体内有内部时钟的存在,这个时钟在某种形式上对衰老进行测量和监控,并最终决定了这一必然程序的最后一步:死亡。30与寿命一样,不同生物体的新陈代谢速率与其体积存在一个固定的数学上的关系。比起寿命长短,此关系为“逆向的”:生物体的体积越大,代谢速率则越低。此外,这个关系不但适用于鸟类,也适用于其他所有生物体(植物、动物、单细胞生物),因为系统单位内的情况大体类似。


F 主那些低耗能的动物活得特别久,31如鳄鱼和乌龟。鹦鹉和莺鸟通常由锁链栓着,所以无法“体验生活”,但笼养因此使其获得了较长的寿命。那些用冬眠或嗜睡来节约体力的动物(如骗蝠或刺猜)也常常比那些爱活动的动物活得更久。老鼠通过减少食物消耗(饥饿饮食法)来降低其新陈代谢的速率,这样他们就能活得比那些顿顿酒足饭饱的同类久一倍。女性明显比男性活得更久(约10%)。倘若你探究人类两性的新陈代谢速率,就会发现:男性的代谢速率较高正是导致他们寿命较短的原因。这也就意味着男性的生命力更旺盛,更激烈,却并非更久。






Questions 27~32





i 生物钟


iii 男人和女人的老化过程



vi 不同物种的发展模式

vii 尽管有所改善,但是寿命仍然恒定

viii 能量消耗

ix 物品老化和生物体衰老之间的本质区别

X 基因物质的修复


例子   答案

A段     v









D段第二句指明“不同的物种其寿命也有着显著差别,但在同一物种中,这个参数相对恒定。”,该句句意对应vii项中的a stable life span,紧接着第四句中提到although more and more people attain an advanced age“虽然越来越多的人达到高龄”,此句刚好对应vii项中despite improvements,故本题的答案为vii项。



E段第二句中提到an internal clock“一个内在的时钟”,对应i项,接下来的内容均为该内部时钟与衰老之间的联系,故本题答案为i



F段首句指出“那些behave'frugally'with energy的动物寿命尤其长”,接着举出动物以及男性和女性的例子说明代谢速率与寿命之间的关系,以此证明首句的观点故本题答案为vili

部分考生可能会因为该段中Women become distinctly(about 10%)older tha men.这句话而误选

男性寿命长这个事实,并没有提到aging process,在后面的内容中也未提及,故排除。



G段是根据F段得出的结论,该段首句指出sparing use of energy reserves shoul tend to extend life,其中extendiv项中的prolong为同义替换,接下来的内容都和如何延年益寿有关,故本题答案为iv项。


Questions 33-36





33-34答案:physical chemistry/thermodynamics




该段提到了物品的磨损,并在该段第三句解释说Ageing in this case must occur according to the laws of physical chemistry and of thermodynamics “根据物理化学和热力学的规律,在这种情况下老化是必然的”。其中according to the laws和题干中的in accordance with principles为同义替换,又本题需填入两个名词,故本题答案依次为physical chemistrythermodynamics










the theory of evolution可定位到C段的最后一句。

这句话讲到Immortality would disturb this system-it needs room for new and better life. This is the basic problem of evolution"永生可能会打乱这个系统,因为它需要为新的、更好的生命提供空间。这就是进化的本质问题”,即Immortality会给进化论提出问题。故本题答案为Immortality


Questions 37~40






37 The wear and tear theory applies to both artificial objects and biological systems .答案:NO


由题干中的wear and tear可定位到原文的A段,该段提到人造产品在使用过程会产生自然磨损,紧接着在段末提出疑问——技术产品的磨损和生物体死亡之间真的具有相似性和可比性吗?也就是问适用于技术产品的自然磨损理论是否也适用于生物体。

紧接着B段对这个问题进行了回答,认为自然磨损理论虽然holds for a living organism, the result of this law is not inexorable in the same way“适用于生物体,但这一规律并不会以同样的方式产生不可抗拒的结果”,由原文inexorable可知,人造物品的“老化”无法阻挡,但对于生物体而言老化和死亡是可以阻止的,因此自然磨损理论不适用于生物系统,故本题答案为NO


38 In principle, it is possible for a biological system to become older without ageing.答案:YES



该段第四句中提到as long as a biological system has the ability to renew itself it could actually become older without ageing“只要一个生物系统有能力自我更新它就确实能够不断成长但不会老化”,根据常识,一般生物系统都具有自我更新能力故生物系统能become older without ageing,故本题答案为YES


39 Within seven years, about 90 percent of a human body is replaced as new. 答案:NOT GIVEN


本题可通过题干中数字词 seven years90 percent在文中去寻找关键信息。但是我们会发现,文中未出现相关的词,故本题答案为NOT GIVEN


40 Conserving energy may help to extend a human's life.  答案:YES



该段首句指出 sparing use of energy reserves should tend to extend life“节约使用我们的能量储备应该可以延长寿命”,故本题说法正确。