第三课时Reducing Production Cost 降低生产成本
Result in 导致，造成
Cut corners 抄近路，走捷径，偷工减料
Greener pastures 更绿的牧场（比喻更好的谋生去处，更好的工作、职位）
In the short run 在短期内
Go through the roof 大大增加，上涨到处乎意料的程度
TQM (total quality management) 全面质量管理
Under the umbrella of在…的保护下
Cost accountant 成本会计师
Cost control 成本控制
Prognosis 预告 预言
Customer service 客户服务中心，客户服务
Customer satisfaction 客户满意度
Cost effective (有)成本效益的
Competitive edge 竞争优势，竞争力
Cost management 成本管理
Cut down 削减，减少
Raw material 原料
To a large extent 在很大程度上
Production line 生产线，流水线
Shift work 倒班制，轮班工作（一般指三班倒，即 day shift, evening shift,以及 night shift）
Permanent schedule 固定班（亦称 fixed schedule）
Rotating schedule 轮班制
Out of step with 与…步调不一致
Adjust to 对…适应
Fight off 竭力避免
Body rhythm 生理节奏
Out of step with 与…不协调，失调
Consultancy service 咨询服务
Night shift blues 夜班忧郁症
All this 所有这一切
Health counseling facilities 健康咨询设施
Health facilities 健身设备
Round the clock 24 小时
Translate to 转化为
Adequate lighting 充分的照明，足够的照明
Proper heat 适当的室温
Reducing Business Costs降低经营成本
Cost reduction is an important factor in improving the state of a business.
It can obviously result in higher profits and a stronger enterprise.
Most business leaders and managers would like to reduce costs, but many find it difficult to do the right things.
There are several methods business leaders or managers use to reduce costs that can be damaging to the health of the organization.
These include downsizing, reducing customer service, and cutting corners in production methods.
Some company leaders feel they can reduce costs by simply downsizing or reducing the number of workers or middle managers.
If this is done after applying ISO 9000 and defining the exact role of everyone, it may be a necessary and effective method.
如果是在实施 ISO9000 质量体系之后，并已对每个成员的角色做出了细致的规定之后，这有可能不失为必要并且有效的一种方法。
Unfortunately, most companies that downsize do so without really knowing the impact on the company’s operations.
One of the biggest effects of downsizing to reduce costs is that the good employees quickly leave the company for greener pastures.
Thus the company is left with the deadwood employees, who are supposed to do twice the work as before.
Reducing Customer Service
Customer service can be a nuisance and is often expensive.
Sometimes companies will reduce or eliminate the service they give to the customers. Unfortunately,
a neglected customer is an ex-customer.
A quick way to cut costs is by cutting corners in production or service methods.
Some company leaders feel that by using cheaper materials and labor, and by eliminating part and steps, they can cut costs and save money.
It is true that costs may be cut in the short run, but often the product or service is of such a low quality that repair and rework costs go through the roof.
Also customers may be come unhappy with the low quality and move on to another supplier.
Effective ways to reduce costs include training your workers, getting quality goods from suppliers, and using Total Quality Management (TQM) tools.
Because to reduce costs means to reduce waste. That is wasted materials, wasted effort, and wasted time.
In these days of changing technologies and methods, it is necessary to train your workers to keep them up to date.
Get Quality from Suppliers
Low quality goods from suppliers are a major source of waste.
You should not only try to get quality suppliers but also work with your suppliers to help them improve their operations and quality of output.
There are a number of improvement methods that can be placed under the umbrella of Total Quality Management (TQM).
In conclusion, crude methods to reduce costs—such as downsizing—are not effective and can actually harm a business.
Helping your suppliers, training your workers, and using TQM-type improvement tools can help to eliminate waste and improve the profits of your business.
PART ONE: Interview
- Why do you think you're fit for the position?为什么你认为自己适合这个职位？
The position you recruit requires solid theory, teamwork and hardworking spirit.During the school period, I studied hard and won many honorary titles such as scholarships, organized or participated in various activities. Moreover，I completed xx tasks together with my colleagues during xx units' work on xx projects and receive an award.These experiences cultivate my teamwork and endurance.So, I believe I can do the job.贵单位招聘的某某岗位要求应聘者具有扎实的理论、有团队合作和吃苦耐劳精神。在校期间，我学习努力，多次获得奖学金等荣誉称号，组织开展过或者参加各种活动，另外，在xx单位从事xx项目工作期间，与同事一道完成了xx任务，收到嘉奖。这些经历培养我的团队合作和吃苦耐劳精神。所以，我相信我能胜任这个岗位。
- What is something to pay special attention to on your resume？谈谈你的简历上有些什么值得特别关注的吗？
The flash of light on my resume should be in my project experience and internship experience, which will help me a lot in the position I am applying for, and my professional background will also be a shining spot, such as Page 2 and Column 4 of my resume about my internship experience. I think I need to focus on the focus of your attention.
Turn to relative questions.
(1) Is it important to consult a cost accountant when starting a new project?(Why/Why not)
Yes. It’s paramount in cost control. The cost accountant can prepare budgets and give a prognosis for the project. His advice is essential in deciding whether to undertake or abandon the planned project.
(2) In what ways is customer service related to cost reduction?
Customer service can enhance customer satisfaction and loyalty. Good customer relationship helps to improve your company image and boost sales. As a result, large scale production will be cost effective for your company.
(3) Do you think people can be trained to work more efficiently? (Why/Why not?)
Yes. I think staff training is extremely important nowadays. You see, technologies keep changing and if employees get regular training, they would be able to work more efficiently. It’s the competence of the workforce that sharpens the competitive edge of the company.
(4) What changes in cost management do you expect will happen in the future?
I expect it will head towards more cost-efficient methods, involving more parties in the process of production: not only corporate management and staff, but also suppliers, retailers and even customers.
PART TWO: Mini-presentation
What’s important when…?
Aiming to control production cost 要控制生产成本需要考虑哪些要点？
*Efficiency of production line生产线的效率
In cost management, it’s important to cut down the cost of raw materials, as to a large extent, it helps to determine the product prices. Cost-conscious companies always seek to work with good supplier s who can offer quality raw materials with reasonable prices. Low quality materials from suppliers are actually a waste of money.
Efficiency of production line is another important thing to consider. When introducing a production line, it is important to consult an ergonomics specialist and see that it’s user-friendly and will not cause too much physical stress and strain. Meanwhile, workers should get full-trained to work more efficiently on the line.
Measures should also be taken to eliminate waste. On top of that, management should develop good benefits system to boost the morale of the workers.
PART THREE: Discussion
Introducing Shift Work
Your company would like to introduce shift work operation to optimize the production process. You have been asked to help co-ordinate the project. Discuss the situation together, and decide:
l how to arrange the work schedule
l how to match staff to this new work requirement
A： When introducing shift work, the most important thing is to work out good work schedules. I think we can divide our twenty-four hour operation into three shifts: day shift, evening shift and night shift. And we’ll have the permanent schedule. It’s tough to work at night, but once you get used to it, it’s easier to fight off the night -time fatigue.
B: Well, I partly agree with you. I mean “the three shifts” is a good idea, but I think it would be better if we adopt the rotating schedule. You see, shift-work disrupts the body rhythm and is very stressful. Besides, it affects home life; the night shift worker is out of step with his family.
A: That’s the problem. Night shifts really affect our health conditions. So you’re right, the rotating schedule has more advantages over the fixed schedule.
B: All right. So we’ll adopt the rotating schedule, three shifts and the day shift is from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm with a lunch-break. And evening shift, 5:00 pm to 1:00 am including coffee breaks, and then…
A: And night shift from 1:00 am to 8:00 am, also with a coffee break.
B: Right. We should also provide our shift workers with training programmes to help them better adjust to this new work requirement. We should inform them of the harmful effects of night shifts and give them tips on how to prevent and fight off these hazards.
A: Yes. We can arrange health specialists to give them training courses and provide online consultancy service for the convenience of our shift workers. And I think we should also provide psychological consultancy just in case they get too stressed. We need to help them to cope with night shift blues.
B: Good. It’s also important to provide some nutritious food during the evening and night shifts.
A: 引进倒班工作制，最重要的事情是制定好工作计划。我认为我们应该把 24 小时的操作时间划分为三个班次：白班、晚班和夜班。而且我们应该有一个永久的时间表。夜班作业非常艰苦，但是一旦习惯，适应夜班的疲劳也不是那么困难。
B：是的，因为我们通过轮换工作表，三班交替包括：白班：上午 8：:0~下午 5:00，中间一顿午餐；晚班下午 5:00~上午 1:00，包括茶歇时间，然后…
A：夜班 上午 1:00~8:00 也包括一次茶歇时间。
Follow up questions
（1） What benefits will your company gain from shift work operation?
If we keep our equipment operating round the clock, we’ll be able to use our productive equipment to its fullest potential, which would help to optimize the production process. You see, improved productivity translates directly to higher profits.
（2） How important is it to inform workers of the hazards of night shift?
It’s certainly of great importance. Employees’ well-being and security should be the first priority of the management. When shift workers are fully aware of the hazards, they will take better care of themselves.
（3） Do you think companies should provide health counseling facilities? (Why? /Why not?)
In my opinion, it’s a must in this highly competitive age. Employees often become stressful and develop health problems. Management should provide health counseling facilities to help improve the physical and mental health of the staff and boost their morale.
（4） Should work environment be taken into consideration when designing shift work? (Why? / Why not?)
Poor working conditions add to the strain of shift work. Adequate lighting, clean air, proper heat, air-conditioning and reduced noise will help to reduce the shift worker’s burden.
（5） Is regular exercise important for shift workers? (Why? /Why not?)
Physical exercises are extremely important for night shift workers. Jogging, walking, cycling or swimming will help them to relax and to minimize stress. You see, shift work disrupts the body rhythm and is very harmful to your health.