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硕士研究生英语考试翻译讲解与分析【1】

2019-10-07

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English-Chinese Translation

 

Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)

 

In less than 30 years’ time the Star Trek holodeck will be a reality. Direct links between the brain’s nervous system and a computer will also create full sensory virtual environments, allowing virtual vacations like those in the film Total Recall.

 

41There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend. 42Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips, computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools, relaxation will be in front of smell television, and digital age will have arrived.

 

According to BT’s futurologist, Ian Pearson, these are among the developments scheduled for the first few decades of the new millenniuma period of 1,000 years, when supercomputers will dramatically accelerate progress in all areas of life.

 

43Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place. Some of the biggest developments will be in medicine, including an extended life expectancy and dozens of artificial organs coming into use between now and 2040.

 

Pearson also predicts a breakthrough in computer-human links. “By linking directly to our nervous system, computers could pick up what we feel and, hopefully, simulate feeling too so that we can start to develop full sensory environments, rather like the holidays in Total Recall or the Star Trek holodeck, ” he says. 44But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man-machine integration: “It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century.”

 

Through his research, Pearson is able to put dates to most of the breakthroughs that can be predicted. However, there are still no forecasts for when faster-than-light travel will be available, or when human cloning will be perfected, or when time travel will be possible. But he does expect social problems as a result of technological advances. A boom in neighborhood surveillance cameras will, for example, cause problems in 2010, while the arrival of synthetic lifelike robots will mean people may not be able to distinguish between their human friends and the droids.

 

45And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorderkitchen rage.

一、试题总体分析

这篇文章主要展望了科学技术给人类未来生活可能带来的各种变化,未来学家对科学突破性进展日期的预测,以及某些技术进步可能带来的社会问题。

2001年度翻译试题难度适中,考点涉及了词义确定、非谓语结构以及从句的翻译。就此,考生可以总结出,词义确定和句子结构是翻译必考的项目。词义确定要求考生根据上下文和搭配的要求,确定某个特定词在本句中的意思以及翻译后选择的汉语表达,而这个意思往往不是考生在平时记忆的单词词义,可能是某个偏僻的词义、引伸义,甚至在该上下文中才有的、没有在词典中确定下来的意思。因此特别提醒考生不要字对字地翻译,而要在上下文中确定具体单词的意思,正如一句话说得好:“There is no meaning except in the context.”(只有在上下文中才有词义)。

 

二、试题具体解析

41)There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them when they offend.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:定语从句的翻译、过去分词做定语、词义确定

句子的主干是there be 句型的将来时,译成“将会出现……,将有……”。hosted by robots是过去分词作后置定语修饰chat shows,由于不太长,翻译时可以前置做定语。pollution monitors(污染监控器)后面接的定语从句that will disable...offend并不是起修饰限定作用,翻译时不能把它前置做定语,此从句实际是说 pollution monitors 的功能,译时可独立成句。定语从句中包含一个when 引导的时间状语从句。

词汇chat shows即是近年来在我国也广为流行的电视谈话节目;host做名词为“(男)主持人”,做动词是“主持”;offend本意是“冒犯,侵犯”,在这里根据上下文,意思应当是“违规”,进而可译为(汽车)“污染超标”;disable的意思也应当根据上下文确定为“使(汽车)无法运转”。

译文:届时,将会出现由机器人主持的电视谈话节目和装有污染监控器的汽车。一旦这些汽车排污超标(违规),监控器就会使其停驶。

42)Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips, computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools, relaxation will be in front of smell television, and digital age will have arrived.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:意译、介词结构作后置定语、rather than的译法。

整个句子实际上由四个分句并列组成,由逗号和and 连接,但是最后一句从意思上看实际是一句总结性的话。第一分句中,equipped with personality chips是过去分词做定语修饰dolls;第二句是一个被动语态,其中主要结构为be regarded as  rather than ,意思为“被看作是……而不是……”,该句中with in-built personalities这一介词结构作computers的后置定语;第三句如果直译成“休闲将在气味电视机前面”不太贴切,尤其作为书面语不合适,考生可以加入“休闲”这一动作的发出者,将该句译成:人们将在气味电视机前休闲,或译成:休闲将在气味电视机前面进行;第四句中,考生需要注意时态为将来完成时。

词汇computers后的with结构是“带有、具有”的意思;in-built意为“内在的,内置的”,rather than表示否定,此结构翻译题中就已经数次出现。

译文:儿童将与装有个性化芯片的玩具娃娃玩耍,具有个性内置的计算机将被视为工作伙伴而不是工具,人们将在气味电视机前休闲,届时数字化时代就要来到了。

43Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:多重复合句的译法

该句子是复杂的复合句,其结构可以分三层。第一层是句子主语是Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers … to …,不定式引导目的状语,第二层在目的状语中,宾语calendar后有that引导的定语从句,第三层结构为that引导的定语从句中,宾语the latest dates后又有一个when引导的定语从句,注意不要误以为时状语从句。这样的三层复合结构形成了环环相套的定语从句链,关键在于考生需要把这个链条打断,也就是进行断句,考生可以在that处断句。

词汇piece together意为“汇集”;the latest dates意为“最近的日期”;key breakthroughs意为“重大突破”。

译文:皮尔森汇集世界各地数百位研究人员的成果,编制了一个独特的新技术千年历,它列出了人们有望看到数百项重大突破和发现的最迟日期。

44)But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man-machine integration: It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century. ”

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:定语从句

Pearson points out属插入语成分,主句为主表结构that is the start,它实际上也是point out 的宾语内容。主语that 是代词,指前两句中提到的电脑与人之间连接的突破。引号中的是Pearson所说的话。it 指代紧跟它的integration(一体化)。that will ultimately...century是修饰the process of integration 的定语从句,由于定语太长,不适宜在中文中做前置定语,只能另起一句,用重复先行词的办法,或把定语从句译作并列句。

译文:皮尔森指出,这个突破仅仅是人机一体化的开始:“它是人机一体化漫长之路的第一步,最终会使人们在下世纪末之前就研制出完全电子化的仿真人。”

45And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder—kitchen rage.

[解析] 本题考核的知识点是:so  that结构、词义确定

这个句子的主干是home appliances will become so...that...,“so  that ”结构的意思是“如此……以至……”。that 后接的是结果状语从句,从句的主语是controlling and operating them;them指的是主语home appliances;从句的谓语是will result in,breakout of...是in的介词宾语。此处的破折号起解释作用,解释a new psychological disorder的内容。

词汇smart 意为“巧妙的,(人)聪明的”,但是在这里需要结合上下文理解为“智能化的”;breakout 一般译为“爆发”,但是与心理疾病或心理紊乱(a psychological disorder)搭配不合适,所以意译为“引起,引发”;同理kitchen rage亦不可直译为“厨房暴怒”,尽量与心理疾病的用词挂钩,译为“厨房狂躁症”。

译文:家用电器将会变得如此智能化,以至于控制和操作它们会引发一种新的心理疾病——厨房狂躁症。

 

参考译文

在未来不到三十年的时间里,特列克星号的全息舱面就会成为现实。大脑神经系统和计算机之间的直接连接还会创造出全方位感受虚拟环境,使电影《全部回忆》中展示的虚拟假期成为可能。

 

41)届时,将会出现由机器人主持的电视谈话节目和装有污染监控器的汽车。一旦这些汽车排污超标(违规),监控器就会使其停驶。(42)儿童将与装有个性化芯片的玩具娃娃玩耍,具有个性内置的计算机将被视为工作伙伴而不是工具,人们将在气味电视机前休闲,届时数字化时代就要来到了。

 

BT的未来学家亚恩·皮尔森做出的预见,这些都属于新世纪头几十年发展计划之列,届时,超级计算机将急剧加速各个生活领域的发展。

 

43)皮尔森汇集世界各地数百位研究人员的成果,编制了一个独特的新技术千年历,它列出了人们有望看到数百项重大突破和发现的最迟日期。一些最大的进展将在医学领城,包括人预期寿命的延长和数十种人造器官,这些将在现在到2024年之间陆续实现。

 

皮尔森还预言,在计算机与人的连接上会有一个重大突破。他说:“通过直接与我们的神经系统相连,计算机可以知道我们的感觉,并且,我们希望,它可以模仿感觉,这样,我们就能够发展全方位感知环境,就像电影《全部回忆》中的虚拟假期或特列克星号上的全息舱面。”(44)但皮尔森指出,这个突破仅仅是人机一体化的开始:“它是人机一体化漫长之路的第一步,最终会使人们在下世纪末之前就研制出完全电子化的仿真人。”

 

通过研究,皮尔逊能够预言大多数突破的发生时间。然而,对于何时能够进行超光速旅行,何时人类克隆技术能够得以完善,何时可以进行时间旅行,却依然没有预见。但他的确预见技术进步引起的社会问题。比如,到2010年,住宅区附近监视器数量的剧增将引发问题;仿真机器人意味着人类可能无法区分同类朋友和这些机器人伙伴。(45)家用电器将会变得如此智能化,以至于控制和操作它们会引发一种新的心理疾病——厨房狂躁症。

 

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