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士学位英语培训(广东地区)

2019-08-22

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成人学位英语考试单词分析与记忆技巧

  一、 对考试词汇分析

  研究分析1996~2010年15次历年真题,将英语三级词汇分为:核心词汇和非核心词汇及超纲词汇。  核心词汇: 考试试题中出现频率较高的词和词汇考查重点、本身带有词组较多的词、多于其它此类搭配的词、有特殊用法的词,考生不熟悉的词。1000个词左右。
  非核心词汇:中学阶段可能掌握的词,专有名词,简单词(意思单一,用法单一).这些词除非在阅读理解中外,一般不会被设计成词汇试题。1000个词左右。
  超纲词汇:超纲词汇在考试中的比例很小,针对超纲词汇的考查并不难,那么掌握超纲词的要求也就不高,基本上是对词汇的概念理解。那么考生真正需要突破的词汇在1500个左右。

  二、 词汇所占分值分析
  1. 词汇考试题型中在第二部分:词语用法和语法结构(PartⅡVocabulary and Structure)(30%),共30题,考试时间25分钟。题目中50%为词和短语的用法,50%为语法结构。词语用法和语法结构部分主要考核学生运用词汇、短语及语法结构的能力。
  2. 要特别注意词汇和语法结构的学习。大家应当意识到,词汇和语法的学习不能满足于词汇、短语、语法规则的量,最重要的是熟练掌握它们的用法。成人本科学士学位统一考试的题型有易有难,其中词汇和语法结构分属比较容易的题型,考生不应该丢的分。
  3. 第三题挑错(10%),第四题完形填空(10%)与词汇是密不可分的。总体算来词汇占总卷面分值的50%.在强调词汇重要时我们不容忽视语法的重要性。

  三、 对考生的几点建议
  单词记忆方法很多,诸如:归类记忆法、图物记忆法、筛选记忆法、分析记忆法、比较记忆法、循环记忆法、解剖记忆法、规律记忆法、歌诀记忆法、表格记忆法、提纲记忆法、趣味记忆法、卡片记忆法、浓缩记忆法等等。
  特别提醒考生一定要针对英语三级的考试特点,明确词汇考核的方向,找到适合自己的一二种记忆方法,不能见异思迁。
  1. 每次背诵的数量和时间要根据自己的具体情况定,背诵要选择一天中头脑清晰、精力充沛的时候进行。其它时间要记也要本着心情能静下来为原则;
  2. 观察:记生词时不要上来就盲目地拼记。最好先用几分钟时间仔细观察该词的结构,找出其特点。这样做表面上看似乎浪费时间,但实际上对记单词大有帮助;
  3. 遵循人的记忆规律,循环复习比一次性记忆有效;
  4. 脑子是很容易疲劳的,记忆的时间学生最好控制在一个半个小时以内;
  5. 联想 联想有助于单词记忆,这是毫无疑问的。
  此外,贵在坚持。

  四、 对几个单词记忆方法的介绍

  1. 词根词缀法:
  这个方法基于英语单词的构词法,靠分解单词来记忆。每个英语单词都可以分解成一个核心词根,和前缀或后缀。比如知道able,abil的意思是capable能,就可以知道able,enable,unable,ability,capable等都是和能力和才干有关系的。但前提是,你必须先学习和掌握一定的词根、词缀的意义。

  2. 循环往复法:
  把所要背的单词分组,比如每组30个,共50组。第一天,背第一组的30个;第二天不要急着前行,先用比前一天快一倍的速度把第一组的单词过一遍,然后再看第二组的单词;几天以后再复习第一天的单词,以此类推。考生可以将《三级英语红宝书》之词汇手册作为参考。

  3. 分类归总法:
  常用的分类方法包括:同义词与反义词分类,种属特性分类,类比分类等等。例如,政府有关的词有,government,official,administrate等。对这种“单词家族”的分门别类,有利于掌握成片单词以及其意义差别,不失为一种好的方法。

  人会遗忘,最好的方法是在你正要遗忘的时候复习一下,这相当于对原来记忆进行刺激,会使快要忘记的东西记得很牢。这个方法因人而异,你可以根据自己的记忆力情况,决定复习的周期。如果怕雪球越滚越大,到后来每天的任务越来越艰巨,你也可以先把要背的所有单词都背一遍,采取每第二天只复习前一天的内容方法,等全部背完一遍后再从头来第二遍。

成人学位英语考试解题技巧---完形填空

一、概述
  完形填空(Part Ⅳ Cloze)是在一篇题材熟悉、难度适中的短文(约200词)中留有20个空白。每个空白为一题,每题有四个选项。要求考生在全面理解内容的基础上选出一个最佳答案,使短文的结构和意思恢复完整。填空的选项包括结构词和实义词,有些选项会涉及到一些重要的语法。
  二、完形填空解析
  完型填空是英语考试的一个组成部分。《考试大纲》指出:“完型填空部分的目的是测试学生综合运用语言的能力”,也即理解篇章和使用词汇和语法的能力。完型填空有如下特点:
  1.这项考试首先是测试考生对篇章的理解能力。虽然所给出的文章被抽去了一些词,但是整篇文章的内容仍是可以理解的。如果考生不能理解文章内容,就难以将正确的词填入文中。这也就是完型填空题与以单句形式考核词汇和语法的实体的根本区别。由此可见,考生在作题时必须时刻从上下文考虑,部应该只看到所添的词在短语或句子内是否可行。因此,在作题时最好将全文通读一下,了解了全文的意识以后在作题。
  2.这项考试还测试考生使用词汇和语法结构的能力。文章中留出的每一个空格要求填入一个词。考试大纲规定:“填空的词项包括结构词和实义词”。结构词(也称虚词,有代词、冠词、介词、连词、关系词等)主要是表示语法结构关系的,在选用结构词时便需要考虑在语法上是否恰当。对实义词(名词、形容词、数词、动词和副词)的选择既要看其意思用在句中是否得当,也要看它与其他词的搭配关系是否合适。
  3.首句一般没有空格,对于首句应该给与足够的重视,因为往往它就是中心句或是引导句,它的时态往往决定了全文的时态,所以多花一点时间看首句是值得的。
  4.然后以句子为单位一句一句地读,一句一句地填空,主要考虑语法、句意、逻辑和上下文联系。暂时填不出来的就空在那里。
  5.最后通读一遍,完成没有填的空,再看看填的顺不顺,不顺的地方大胆修改。
  三、答题技巧
  1.拿到题目,首先从语法角度考虑,因为语法考察要占70%以上(其中有与词汇考察相交部分),每一题必然是考某一个语法点,如果你在选择答案时已经知道考的是哪一个语法点,那么90%的可能这道题里做对了;如果你云里雾里,那只有祈祷了。
  2.从语法着手不行之后,在从句意着手,透彻理解句子的意思。
  3.总是第一反应,因为第一反应往往来自于语感。
  4.容易的熟悉的题要一跳而过,难题也不要多花时间,先猜一个答案,(以免后来时间紧,忘记),再在题目前做一个记号,等到检查时,再考虑。也许在做其它题目时,你会得到某种启示。
  5.掌握语法结构和规则,记住短语搭配,用熟悉的短语去推断正确的答案。
  四、讲解(例题略难于真题)
  例一:
  Most people have no idea of the hard work and worry that gosintosthe collecting of those fascinating birds and animals that they pay to see in the zoo.One of the questions that is always asked of me is __1__ I became an animal collector in the first __2__ .The answer is that I have always been interested in animals and zoos.According to my parents, the first word I was able to say with any __3__ was not the conventional“mamma”or“daddy”, __4__ the word“zoo”, which I would __5__ over and over again with a shrill __6__ until someone, insgroupsto __7__ me up, would take me to the zoo.When I __8__ a little older, we lived in Greece and I had a great __9__ of pets, ranging from owls to seahorses, and I spent all my spare time __10__ the countryside in search of fresh specimens to __11__ to my collection of pets.__12__ on I went for a year to the City Zoo, as a student __13__ , to get experience of the large animals, such as lions, bears, bison and ostriches,__14__ were not easy to keep at home.When I left, I __15__ had enough money of my own to be able to __16__ my first trip and I have been going __17__ ever since then.Though a collector's job is not an easy one and is full of __18__ ,it is certainly a job which will appeal __19__ all those who love animals and __20__ .
  1.A.how B.where C.when D.whether
  2.A.region B.field C.place D.case
  3.A.clarity B.emotion C.sentiment D.affection
  4.A.except B.but C.except for D.but for
  5.A.recite B.recognize C.read D.repeat
  6.A.volume B.noise C.voice D.pitch
  7.A.close B.shut C.stop D.comfort
  8.A.grew B.was growing C.grow D.grown
  9.A.many B.amount C.number D.supply
  10.A.living B.cultivating C.reclaiming D.exploring
  11.A.increase B.include C.add D.enrich
  12.A.later B.further C.then D.subsequently
  13.A.attendant B.keeper C.member D.aide
  14.A.who B.they C.of which D.which
  15.A.luckily B.gladly C.nearly D.successfully
  16.A.pay B.provide C.allow D.finance
  17.A.normally B.regularly C.usually D.often
  18.A.expectations B.sorrows C.excitement D.disappointments
  19.A.for B.with C.to D.from
  20.A.excursion B.travel C.journey D.Trip
  答案:
  1.【答案】A
  【解析】根据下一句及随后的内容,作者讲的是怎样成为动物爱好者的(从小就喜欢动物),应当选择A.how.
  2.【答案】C
  【解析】in the first place是固定短语,意思是“首先”。此句意思是:别人经常问到的问题之一,是当初我是如何爱上动物的。
  3.【答案】A
  【解析】这句话的意思是:作者在呀呀学语之时,最早发清楚的音是“zoo”(动物园),而不是“妈妈”,“爸爸”,因此,应选clarity“清晰”。填入其他选项emotion(感情),sentiment(多愁善感),affection(友爱)不合逻辑。
  4.【答案】B
  【解析】but在此处连接另一个句子(it was the word“zoo”,“it was”被省略),表示转折,意为“而是”,Except,except for,but for的用法接近,表示“除了……”。
  例如:
   We go there every day except Sunday.
   He answered all the questions except for the last one. 
   For a year the dam remained complete but for the generators. 
  从意思上,逻辑上,都应当选but.
  5.【答案】D
  【解析】根据后面的over and over again,应选“repeat”
  6.【答案】C
  【解析】小孩想去动物园,便不停地发出尖叫声,故选“voice”。A shrill voice与scream的意思接近。volume(音量);noise(噪音);pitch(音调)均不合要求。
  7.【答案】B
  【解析】shut sb.up是指让某人住口,为了让孩子停止尖叫,只好带他去动物园。
  8.【答案】A
  【解析】根据后面主句的时态,此处只能用一般过去时。
  9.【答案】C
  【解析】a great many后直接跟可数名词的复数形式;a great / large amount of后跟不可数名词;只有a great /large number of后可以跟可数名词的复数形式。
  例如:
   I read a great many English books.
   A large amount of money is spent on tobacco every year. 
   A great number of civilians were murdered in cold blood. 
  10.【答案】D
  【解析】living后必须接介词in,意为“居住”;cultivating耕种;reclaiming开垦;只有exploring有探察的意思。
  11.【答案】C
  【解析】add to相当于increase,增加。其余选项后面都不接to.
  12.【答案】A
  【解析】later on为固定短语,“后来”。
  13.【答案】D
  【解析】attendant仆人;keeper可理解为“饲养员”,但是a student keeper容易被误解为“收留学生的人”;aide有“助手”之义。作者一边上学,一边在动物园里打工,只能当助手。
  14.【答案】D
  【解析】which在此引导定语从句,修饰前面列出的动物。
  15.【答案】D
  【解析】因为钱是在动物园打工挣的,选successfully更能体现其含义。
  16.【答案】D
  【解析】finance my first trip意为“支付我的旅行费用”;pay后应接介词for;其他选项的意思相差甚远。
  17.【答案】B
  【解析】此句为现在完成进行时态,选regularly比较贴切。
  18.【答案】D
  【解析】此句是由though引导的让步状语从句,应与主句意思相对立。选项中,sorrows和disappointments与主句的appeal to相对立,但sorrows的分量太重。
  19.【答案】C
  【解析】appeal to为成语,意思是“吸引”。
  20.【答案】B
  【解析】excursion短途旅行;journey(从一地到另一地的)长距离,具体的旅途;travel旅行,旅游,海外旅行;trip旅行,远足。

考试作文速成模板——图表篇

 

成教学位英语考试作文五大类型的速成模版,即:图表分析型、对比论述型、问题解决型、道理阐述型和情景应用型。写作模版在字数要求、主题确立、布局谋篇和语言表达等四个方面都给出了具体的指导。一旦掌握了这些模版,考生即可按照作文题目的要求,综合作文题意和主题内容,选择相应的模版,快速完成作文写作。

1) 图表分析型作文模版

【写作模版1】 ⑴The table/figure/graph/chart shows that from________to_______ . ⑵ It is self-evident that,___________.⑶ Three possible reasons contribute to___________.

(4)One reason is that_________; (5) another reason is that __________.(6)For instance,____________.(7)What's more___________.(8)As a result,______________.

(9)However, in my opinion___________ . (10 )For one thing,_________, For another, __________ . To sum up,____________________.

【模版要素】

①图表总体描述(指出年代)

②指出突出的数据变化

③具体表示急剧上升、下降或特殊现象的词或指代词代替上文内容

④第一原因

5第二原因

⑥举例证

⑦最后一个原因

⑧总结上文

⑨作者自己的观点或看法

⑩论点1

⑾论点2

⑿总结上文

College Students Spending More Time on Computers

【模版例文】① The chart shows that students are now spending much more time on the computer, from one hour to four hours per week from 1990to 1995. ②It is self-evident that it increases sharply to twenty hours in the year of 2000. ③Three possible reasons contribute to this phenomenon.

④One reason is that most college students now can afford a personal computer due to the sharp decline in its price. ⑤Another reason is that they find the computer a wonderful thing to have fun with.⑥For instance, they can chat through QQ or playing games online. ⑦What's more, from Internet, they can learn things much more quickly than simply from reading books so that they can secure a good job in the future . ⑧As a result, all these lead to much more time spent on using computers.

⑨However, in my opinion, there are some complaints from both teachers and students. ⑩For one thing, students complain about the less availability of computers and slow speed of the network. ⑾ For another, some teachers worry that the much more time spent playing computer games or surfing online will lead students to ignore their studies and even do cheating instead of doing research by their own. ⑿To sum up, in spite of problems concerning the use of computer, computer is still of more merits than defects.

考试作文速成模板——情景应用篇

 

 

成教学位英语考试作文五大类型的速成模版,即:图表分析型、对比论述型、问题解决型、道理阐述型和情景应用型。写作模版在字数要求、主题确立、布局谋篇和语言表达等四个方面都给出了具体的指导。一旦掌握了这些模版,考生即可按照作文题目的要求,综合作文题意和主题内容,选择相应的模版,快速完成作文写作。

5) 情景应用型作文模版

【写作模版8】

(Date:)________

Dear___________,

①I am delighted to learn that ________ . ②You are welcome to_________ .③I am sure___________.④As for____________ , I am thinking about______________.⑤On the one hand, ______________.⑥0n the other hand,____________________. ⑦If____________.⑧As to the___________, I suggest______________________. ⑨Of course,___________________.

⑩By the way, __________. ⑾In addition,____________.⑿I am looking forward to_____________.

Yours truly,

(Signature:)

【模版要素】

 

① 写信原因

② 表示欢迎

③ 期待

④ 主题词+建议

⑤ 建议1

⑥ 建议2

⑦ 让步条件进一步论证

⑧ 建议的具体内容

⑨ 其他的建议

⑩ 提醒注意事项1

&e322; 注意事项2

&e323; 寒暄结束语

 

 

【模版例文】

Require About How to Choose a Good Major in the University

 

June 7th , 2006

Dear Susan,

 

①I am delighted to learn that you are going to apply for admission to my university. ② You are welcome to be my schoolmate.②I am sure you will be successful. ③As for the specific major you apply for, I am thinking about the international economics course. ④On the one hand, this is one of the best specialized programs in the university. ⑤On the other hand, in today’s society, students majoring in international economics are more likely to find a good job.⑥If you have more ideas, please let me know. ⑦As to the basic requirements to be considered for admissions, I suggest you reach the minimum scare set for admission to key universities in the College Entrance Exams first. ⑧Of course, you have to satisfy the special requirements in mathematics and be good at computer and English.

⑨By the way, in order to prepare for the exams, I suggest you pay attention to all the high school subjects, and maintain a balance between them. ⑩In addition. I am also going to mail you some math's revision materials and a set of New Concept English which will be of great help, I bet.

⑾I am looking forward to good news from you.

Yours truly,

Tom

【写作模版9】

(Date:)________

Dear,

①This letter comes to you from_______ . ②In it, some opinions are put forward for you to reflect upon.

③As you know, _______. ④But unfortunately, we don’t find__________ sometimes. ⑤For one thing,________________.⑥For another, _________.⑦what's more, _________.⑧Honestly speaking,_________. ⑨For example,_______.⑩And__________⑾But there is still much room for improvement.

⑿I do believe____________.

Sincerely yours,

(Signature:)

【模版要素】

①写信人姓名及身份

②写信目的

③主题词

④主题句

⑤问题1

⑥问题2

⑦问题3

⑧承认好的方面

⑨举例1

⑩举例2

&e322;复述观点

&e323;提出解决问题的愿望

 

 

【模版例文】

Complain about the Dining Service in School

 

January 6th , 2007

Dear Mr. President,

①This letter comes to you from one of your students. ②In it, some opinions are put forward for you to think about.

③As you know, students of us go to the dining-hall three times each day. ④But unfortunately, we don't find the service there satisfying sometimes. ⑤For one thing, the food is not nutritious as it should be. ⑥For another, the fare is a little higher than we can afford. ⑦ What's more, sometimes the staff in the dining-hall just bring us steamed bread with their bare hands and you can’t imagine how dirty they are!

⑧Honestly speaking, some measures have been taken and things are improving there. ⑨For example, IC cards have taken the place of money in the canteen. ⑩And the attitude of the staff is also changing a little bit. ⑾But there is still much room for improvement.

⑿I do believe that, with the efforts of all people concerned, we can solve the problems there and make it a better place our students.

考试作文速成模板——解决问题篇

成教学位英语考试作文五大类型的速成模版,即:图表分析型、对比论述型、问题解决型、道理阐述型和情景应用型。写作模版在字数要求、主题确立、布局谋篇和语言表达等四个方面都给出了具体的指导。一旦掌握了这些模版,考生即可按照作文题目的要求,综合作文题意和主题内容,选择相应的模版,快速完成作文写作。

3)问题解决型作文模版

【写作模版4】

①Because of __________, great changes have been taken place in______. ② Particularly,_____________. ③Besides,_____________.

④As we know, there are several ways for ________ to_______choose. ⑤ Above all, ____________.⑥Secondly,________________.⑦Furthermore,_____________.⑧And finally,_______________.

⑨As far as I am concerned,___________.⑩ In the first place,______________.⑾ In the second place,______________.⑿Therefore,_________________.

【模版要素】

① 问题出现的背景

② 提出问题

③ 对问题进一步解释说明

④ 提出解决问题的方法

⑤ 方法一

⑥ 方法二

⑦ 方法三

⑧ 方法四

⑨ 我的做法

⑩ 论点一

&e322; 论点二

&e323; 总结全文

【模版例文】

How I Overcame Difficulties in Learning English

Like many other English learners, I found a lot of difficulties in learning English. Firstly, I found it difficult to understand what I read because most English words have more than one meaning. Besides, I found it difficult to write idiomatic English or translate Chinese into idiomatic English. Finally, my oral English was weak because I had no opportunity to communicate with native English speakers. Although I often read aloud, this didn't prove to be an effective way to improve my spoken English.

But I didn't lose heart in overcoming these obstacles. I tackled English vocabulary in two ways. First, I tried to understand and memorize the specific meaning of a word in its context. Second, I enlarge my vocabulary by breaking words up into roots and affixes and memorize them in connection with the words of the same roots or affixes. To overcome Chinese English, I tried to think in English directly. Although I haven’t had any opportunity to communicate with native speakers, I have tried to improve my spoken English by listening to English broadcasts and writing English compositions.

These experiences have turned out to be effective. I am feeling very confident in myself while sitting here for passing my degree English today.

 

【写作模版5】

①With the development of_________,___________.②So it is of great importance for us to___________.③On the one hand, ___________.④On the other hand,____________.

⑤To us______________, we have figured out many ways to__________.⑥First,_________.⑦Second,____________.⑧Finally, ____________.⑨In a word,____________.

⑩To sum up,____________. ⑾It is high time for us to____________.⑿Therefore, we must______________________.

【模版要素】

① 问题出现的背景

② 提出问题

③ 必要性或后果1

④ 必要性或后果2

⑤ 提出解决问题的方法

⑥ 方法1

⑦ 方法2

⑧ 方法3

⑨ 总结上文

⑩ 重申主题

&e322; 进一步强调主题

&e323; 总结全文

【模版例文】

How I Finance My College Education?

With the rapid development of higher education in China, more high school graduates admitted, exclusively the government can no longer finance universities and students must pay at least partly for their schooling.

There are various ways for a student to pay his tuition and fees. To begin with, if the student is quite excellent in his studies, he can apply for scholarship. Secondly, especially in China, he can always depend on his parents for all kinds of expenditure, including living allowances. Then, he can choose to turn to the bank to for a loan to pay his education, which he can repay after graduation. If he finds the entire above not desirable, he still has another road to take-to do a part-time job and work his way through college.

In my case, I am fortunate enough to be born into a well-to-do family and have no difficulty having my parents pay for all my fees.

as a college student, I dislike a totally dependent existence, so I am working part-time as a newspaper-boy to help support myself. And I am still studying hard, hoping to win a scholarship one day so that I can be wholly self-reliant and independent.

 

考试作文速成模板——道理阐述篇

成教学位英语考试作文五大类型的速成模版,即:图表分析型、对比论述型、问题解决型、道理阐述型和情景应用型。写作模版在字数要求、主题确立、布局谋篇和语言表达等四个方面都给出了具体的指导。一旦掌握了这些模版,考生即可按照作文题目的要求,综合作文题意和主题内容,选择相应的模版,快速完成作文写作。

道理阐述型作文模版

【写作模版6】

①It is well-accepted that(________).②For instance, (__ _).③Besides, ( ) . ④Furthermore, ( ). ⑤Not to mention( ).

⑥In spite of all these, _______________.⑦To begin with,_____________.⑧At the same time,____________.⑨Finally_________.⑩Thu_____________.

⑾ In short,___________.⑿It pays to_________________.

【模版要素】

① 提出主题或现象

② 举例1

③ 举例2

④ 举例3

⑤ 举例4

⑥ 主题词

⑦ 论证1

⑧ 论证2

⑨ 论证3

⑩ 小结上文

&e322; 总结全文

&e323; 深化主题,回应全文

 

【模版例文】

①It is well-accepted that nowadays dishonesty is a common phenomenon in society. ② For instance, many good-hearted doctors would not tell dying patients about their real condition. ③Besides, poor students tend to cheat on exams. ④Furthermore, greedy advertisers, armed with misleading advertisements, may lure customers into buying fake commodities. ⑤Not to mention such "decent" and famous figures as Liu Xiaoqing, used to be considered as China' s movie queen, have cheated the government on income taxes.

⑥1n spite of all these, honesty is always regarded as an important part of the human character. ⑦To begin with, if you treat others fairly, those associating with you will certainly profit from your sincerity. ⑧At the same time, a sense of trust builds up in their hearts, which, in turn, will earn you more true friends. ⑨Finally, that will benefit you in the long run. ⑩ Thus it is essential for everyone to maintain an honest attitude towards the whole society.

⑾In short, honesty wins trust, respect and honor.⑿It pays to be honest.

【写作模版7】

① It is well-known that_________ . ②For example,_____________.③And_________ . ④What's more,______________.⑤Even____________.

⑥However,_____________ . ⑦First of all,_______________.⑧Meanwhile, ________.⑨And_______________ .

⑩Therefore,____________________________.⑾In a word, _____________.⑿We should________________.

【模版要素】

① 提出主题或现象

② 举例1

③ 举例2

④ 举例3

⑤ 举例4

⑥ 主题词

⑦ 论证1

⑧ 论证2

⑨ 论证3

⑩ 小结上文,做好过渡

&e322; 总结全文

&e323; 强调主题论点

【模版例文】

Fight Against the Fake Commodities.

①It is well-known that with the development of economy, fake commodities prevail in many places of our country.②For example, fake medicines and fake diplomas are widespread all over the country.③And there are many reasons explaining this phenomenon, one of which is that some profiteers, regardless of people's interest, can’t wait to make a fortune; They just take risk making and selling fake commodities. ④What’s more, the punishment is not severe enough to stop the violators. ⑤Even the violators are not afraid of it.

⑥However, fake commodities are extremely harmful to consumers as well as to the whole society. ⑦First of all, fake commodities may cause losses to consumers. ⑧Meanwhile, fake commodities may harm people's health, sometimes even lives. ⑨And in the 1998 fatal alcohol poisoning case in Shanxi Province, for example, a peasant produced "alcohol", dreaming of becoming rich overnight; Which, with 27 people killed and about 700 poisoned, caused great sufferings to the victims and shocked the whole country as well.⑩Therefore, it is really high time we took measures to crack down on the production and sale of fake commodities.

⑾In a word, fake commodities are really harmful to everyone concerned. ⑿we should fight against the fake commodities.

考试作文开头和结尾的方法与句型荟萃

 

 

段落的组织手段有按时间、空间、结构、逻辑、过程的次序进行表达的顺序手法,也有运用举例、比较和对照、下定义、归纳、因果、推理、驳论等的表达手法。不管运用何种手法,段落必须服从表达主题的需要,通过摆事实、讲道理、举例子和提供有关数据信息的方法,透彻阐述,清晰地向读者展现你所叙述的一件事、一个人,解释的一个现象或一个道理,讲解的一个过程,或表达的一种看法或信念等。如:

①导入Ladies and gentlemen,①I’m very glad to②主题句welcome you all to our factory.②First of all,I③事实wish to say a few words about our factory.③It④举例was set up in October,1986.④We spent onlyfourteen months in finishing building our factory.⑤事实⑤There are five workshops in our factory and 1 250 workers here,most of whom are young⑥事实举例people.⑥More than 400 workers have had some college education and more than 800 workers have⑦事实had middle school education.⑦Our factory⑧事实mainly produces fertilizers(肥料).⑧In the past few years our factory has advanced rapidly.⑨⑨事实Now we have raised our output of fertilizers to more than 400 thousand tons a year.⑩The totaloutput value of our factory added up to 100⑩结尾句million yuan last year.

Thats all. Thank you.

本段的工厂介绍用了具体的材料作事实,详细的数据举例,避免了空洞的形容词和大量的个人观点和感情流露。这种以事实(数据、时间、结果等)为组织段落写作的手段使听者很容易就可以清楚了解事和人。

段落的组织手段常用以下几种方法:

3-4-1         例证法

例证法是通过用主题句对该段落的中心思想进行总的阐述,然后通过用典型、生动、有说服力的客观事实来支持主题句的观点,使其得到完美充分表达的一种段落展开方式。

【例5】One main reason for war is a difference in ideology. For example, nations have engaged in struggle over the merits of communist and capitalist systems of government. They frequently aid other countries in wars in order to topple governments that do not agree with their principles.

【点评】这段文章第一句为主题句,即战争的一个主要原因是意识形态的不同。然后通过For example这个最常用的例证过渡词引出了一个例子,即许多国家对共产主义与资本主义政治制度的观点不同,资本主义国家往往会支持那些旨在推翻共产主义国家的战争,反之亦然。

3-4-2 因果法

因果法主要是用来探索事物间因果关系的一种段落发展方式。作者通过客观、正确的推理,分析事物发生的原因及产生的结果来阐述主题句、展开段落,使段落合乎逻辑,使主题句的支配思想令人信服。

【例6】Cigarette smoke contains nicotine(因), several cancer produing or irritating substances and carbon monoxide gas. (结果1) Damage to the lining of the bronchial tubes is much more common among cigarette smokers than non-smokers, even when there is no obvious disease. Some of these changes are considered to be pre-cancerous. (结果2) Lung function is generally reduced among cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking is a greater hazard than other factors --- such as community air pollution --- in the causation of cancer and chronic bronchitis. (先因后果,一因多果)

【点评】该段运用了 “原因       →多结果→点明主题”的推理顺序,对吸烟危害性的阐述颇具说服力。

3-4-3比较对照法

比较对照法有两种方式,一种是对人物或事物采取逐点比较或对照的方法;另外一种是对人物或事物采取集中比较或对照的方法。在实际英语写作中,我们常常又可将两种方式结合在一起交叉使用,因此比较对照法有了三种形式。

A.先描述甲方,再描述乙方。

【例7】My hometown is different from what is used to be juse a few years ago. (甲方1) In the past my hometown was a small quiet place. (甲方2) The streets were for the most part narrow and winding. (甲方3) The houses were small and shabby. (乙方1) Now, there are broad strees which are lined with fine shady trees and bordered with large, imposing buildings (乙方2) Many more are still in construction, (乙方3) You can also find crowds of people here and there. (乙方4) My hometown has become noisy but active and prosperous.

【点评】本段通过对照的手法阐述了主题思想: 我的家乡今天与过去相比发生了巨大的变化.首先集中表述了家乡的昔日(甲方),然后集中描述了家乡的今天(乙方).

B. 甲乙双方同时描述,逐点分析。

【例8】Jane and Karen have many things in common. (甲乙双方) To begin with, both girls have the same background. (甲方) Jane was born and raise in the West, (乙方) and so was Karen (甲乙双方) Next, both girls are interested in the same kind of subjects in school (甲方) Jane likes French, history and English. (乙方) In the same way, Karen likes Spanish, history and English. (甲乙双方) Furrthermore both girls want to be teachers. (甲方) Jane plans to become an elementary school teahcer, (乙方) But Karen wants to be high school teacher. As you can see, the two girls are almost like twins.

【点评】本段通过比较的手法同时逐点分析了JANE 和KAREN的相同之处。层次分明,思路清晰。

C.比较对照同时使用。

【例9】I have two good friends. They are quite different in character and yet have something in common. (对照) One of them is a jolly fellow and fond of company, and the other is a quiet and rather unsociable sort of shap. (对照) The jolly one likes all kinds of games. He is a clever, but be doesn’t care much for books. The other one, however, likes being alone and loves reading. He never plays games. (比较) In spite of all these differences they are both so really kind and sympathetic, so honest and straightforward, so loyal and true. (比较) They are both fine and usnselfish fellows. I like them both.

【点评】本段同时使用了比较和对照。即对照写出了两个朋友的不同点,又用比较法写出了他们的相同点。

【例9】 Smoking is very popular among people.Some of the smokers believe that smoking can ease their nerves hardened with socialpressure. Others are after its stimulating effects.But they sel-dom think of the effects it might have on other people's health,especially when they smoke in public places such as cinemas,waiting rooms,buses and trains。Smoking is harmful to health•It contributes a lot to lung cancer,of which many people have died in the past few years.And it isthe cause of many other diseases.In fact,not only smokersthemselves suffer from these smoking-related diseases,but alsonon-smokers who involuntarily inhale the tobacco-polluted air。

【点评】本段写出了一般人对吸烟的正反看法,并以吸烟有害健康的事实与之对照。

3-4-4 定义法

定义法是指扩展段落时,解释词、短语或给各种事物和概念下定义,以解释和阐明某个概念的本质特征,说明段落的中心思想,从而达到作者陈述论证或反驳某一观点的目的。

【例10】What then, is generation gap? Generation gap refers to the distance and contradiction between the old and the young. It’s a common phenomenon that exists everywheere in the world and influendes both the old and they young. Generally speaking, generation gap resuls in different enderstanding and appreciation of the great and oxnstant changes of the world, different reaction to new things, and different attitudes to traditonal principles and belief.

【点评】本段采用定义法,从不同角度阐释说明了主题句中的概念generation gap。段中先对这个词组进行概括性的解释,然后又表明了它的广泛存在以及导致的结果,清楚地阐明了概念,充分地表达了内涵。

3-4-5 归类法

归类法是指按照人物、事物的不同特点,性能进行分别归类而展开段落的写作方法。在归类时要注意描写事物的不同类别。不能把类别不同的事物交错、混杂在一起。

【例10】 Speeding is now the most common motoring offence in Britain。Offences for speeding fall into two classes:exceeding the!imiton restricted road, exceeding on any road.A restricted road isone where the street lamps are 200 yards apart,or more。

【点评】本段将超速者分为两类,对两类超速者的特点分别加以描述,使段落清晰流畅。

【例11】There are three kinds of book owners. The first has all the standard sets and best sellers unread, untouched. (This deluded individual owns woodpush and link, not books. ) The secondhas a great many books-a few of them read through, most ofthem dipped into, but all of them as clean and shiny as the daythey were bought. (This person would probably like to makebooks his own, but is restrained by a false respect for their physical appearance. ) The third has a few books or many -everyone of them dog-eared and dilapidated, shaken and loosened bycontinual use, marked and scribbled in front to back. (This manowns books. )

【点评】本段运用归类法把三种不同藏书者的形态栩栩如生地展现出来,条理非常清楚,有很强的连贯性。

3-4-5         综合法

事实上,在具体的写作中,常常采取对上述几种方法的综合使用来展开段落,说明段落的中心思想。这种段落展开方式称为综合法。

【例12】Our eyes give us information all the time. But our brains decide what is important to us. For example, if you walk down a crowded steet, you will see many faces. But if you see someone you know, you will notice him emmediately.

【点评】本段分别使用了例证法、比较对照法和因果法等3中方法展开段落,谈论我们眼见信息在大脑中的过滤和反射。

考试作文开头和结尾的方法与句型荟萃

3-5 精彩的段落开头

中文有谚语说“万事开头难”,英语作文也不例外。学英语的人都有这样的体会:一旦写好了开头句子和段落,下面就会文思泉涌。英文也有谚语说“Well begun is half done”指的是开篇在全文写作中的分量和作用。文章的开头既要点明主题,提出观点或论点,以便使读者抓住文章的中心思想和写作目的,又要尽可能引人人胜,以求吸引读者的兴趣和好奇心。

   英语作文的开头可以千人千面,但一般而言最好是用鬼佬们的直线思维,开宗明义,直奔主题。比较有效的几种开头方法有:

3-5-1叙述数据事实,凸显作文信度

 【例1】There was a serious accident in the chemistry lab last week,A confused student accidentally poured a wrong mixture of chemi-cals in test tube.There was a strong explosion.Broken pieces ofglass from the test flew in al!directions.A sliver of flying glassfound its mark in John Martin's right arm.The lab instructor sawblood trickling from John's arm.He immediately notified theuniversity's infirmary about the accident。

【例2】 We can see from the chart that the world population is increasing rapidly.By the year 2000,the world population will have dou-bled from that in 1960.1960 saw the world with only about 3 billion people,but by the year 2000,the number will shot up to more than 7 bil!ion 400 million.

3-5-2 简明定义,画龙点睛

【例3】 Rhythm in literature is a more or less regular occurrence of certain elements ofwriting: a word, a phrase, an idea, a pause, a sound, or a grammatical construc-tion. We are also accustomed to this recurrence in the alternate heavy and light beats in music.

【例4】Linguistics can be defined as the scientific study of language.This definition implies that!inguistics studies not just one lan-guage of any society,but the languages of ail human societies.The word "study" here does not mean“learning",but“investiga-tion" or "examination".

3-5-3 铺垫背景材料,导入正文主题

【例5】 My home is an old but comfortable building near the downtown area in the capital of my country.It is centrally located near myschool,the bus lines,several parks,and a museum.The peoplein the neighborhood are friendly and cooperative. There is very!ittle crime,pollution,or clanger there,and children are oftenfound playing on the less-traveled streets.There are small mar-kets and shops within walking distance and larger departmentstores and a shopping center less than ten blocks away.

3-5-4 问题连串出,读者兴趣生

【例6】There is much being said about natural foods these days,Of-ten,proponents of natural foods criticize the majority of foods beingsold in the supermarkets because they contain preservatives. Yet,what would happen if food processors quit using preservatives on bakery goods,frozen vegetables,breakfast cereals, and canned goods?Would the housewife be prepared to deal with storing foodswithout preservatives?

3-5-5 直抒己见,一笔到位

【例7】When sickness first breaks out,the attention and care of thewhole horsehold are focused on the sufferer,who,whether man orwoman,instinctively turns to the affection of loved ones for help.But whe,sickness persists,the paths of the invalid and thosearound diverge more and more.

3-5-6 出乎意料巧假设,蕴含哲理扣心弦

【例8】I have often thought it would be a blessing if each human be-ing were stricken blind and deaf for a few days at some time duringhis early adult life.Darkness would make him more appreciative ofsight;silence would teach him the iovs of sound.

 3-5-7 分项列举,耐人寻味

【例9】Color is widely used as a protective device among animals. Some birds displaybrightly colored feathers when they are threatened. These are designed to frightenaway the enemy. Some animals emit a peculiar smell for the same purpose. Colorand form may be used to conceal the animal. Some insects conceal themselves bymaking themselves resemble plants or flowers. They are hardly visible becausethey can merge into their surroundings.

3-5-8 正反对照巧比较,主题明确细论证

【例10】Industry experts estimate that 5 percent of teenagers own acellular phone, and one recent survey by a market research groupfound that 28 percent of parents with teenagers plan to buy a cellphone for their child within a year. But on the question of why this new teen accessory is needed, the two generations are at opposite ends. Parents envision it as anexpansion of their protective eye. Can't locate the wandering teenJust dial. Teenagers, on the other hand, see the cell phone as a gift of freedom, a device that instantly connects them to their friends, to every party and to the very latest piece of goosip.

3-5-9 引用名言添文采,强化文章说服力

【例11】 Happiness is very important to our life.Shakespeare said,“One who is unhappy can never get a beneficial result.”Thisgood advice gives us the best method to make our mental andphysical life both strong.

3-5-10 段落开头经典句式表达

1)  Recently the problem of…has aroused people’s concern.

2)  Recently the problem of…has been brought to public attention

Recently,the problem of二has been brought into focus.

4)Man is now facing a big problem一(pollution),which is becoming

more and more serious.

5) Have you ever thought of.,.?

6)There will surely be no agreement among people as to the issue whether…

7)(Internet)has been playing an increasingly important role in our day-to-day life. It has brought us a lot of benefits but has createdsome serious problems as well.

8) One of the serious problems facing us at present is…目前,我们

面临的严重问题之一是,二

9) There has been a heated argument about whether...

10)Perhaps we need to reconsider the traditional ways of doing it,

11)It is generally agreed that…is in deep trouble.

12)It is only during the last few years that man has become generally aware of the importance of (sustainable development)

13)Everyone is aware of the horrible fact:

14)It’s difficult to imagine now how we did something without…

15)Along with something goes with something. Inevitably,the two are deeply intertwined.

16)Over the past decade,many people have been troubled with the serious problem of...

17) One of the pressing problems confronting us today is...

18) One of the hottest topics many people talk about now is. . .

19)Now people become increasingly aware of the necessity of.,.

20)No issue is more important now than the one that...(which)is commonly held by most people.

21)In spite of great progress made in the field of.,.,but..,remain basically unchanged.

22)There will often spring up a heated discussion as to...

23)(Independence)has become a hot topic among people,especially among the young,and heated debates are right on their way

24)Nowadays,(overpopulation)ha、become a problem we have to face.

25 )It is commonly believed that.,.

1)      2)It is a common belief that if...

2)      It is held by some people that...

3)      4) It is universally acknowledged that. .

4)      When it comes to.…,most people believe that..

5)      There is often an assumption that. . .

6)      It is increasingly recognized by the general public that.

7)      It has been accepted without question for a long time that..

8)      It has been taken for granted that..

9)      ) Many people insist that. ..

11)A commonly accepted rule of doing something is that...

12)With the development of science and technology,more and more people believe that..

13)In a world that’、growing more and more(competitive)…,the ability to do something has never been more important.

14)It has often been remarked that...

1J)A lot of people seem to think that…

16) It is believed that...

17)Although it i、commonly held that...,it is quite unlikely that.

18)Although it I、generally agreed that.

18 it is unlikely to he true that...

19)Although the(common)(belief)is that... A recent(discovery)(shows) that.,.

20)Although people all agree that…,it should be noted that..

21)For years(hard working)has been regarded as…,but things are quite different nowadays.

22)For years... had been viewed as…But people are taking a fresh look at it now.

23)Most of us have taken it for granted that...,but a recent survey reveals“surprising discovery.

24) We are often told that... But is this really true?

25)Many people like the idea of…But it is not beneficial to…

26) It's well understood that…always requires,but...

27)People used to think that... in the old days. But things are quite different now.

28)Everything has two side、and…is not an exception. It has both advantages and disadvantages.

一)It is a common misconception that if..

2) There is a common misconception among people that…

3)  There is some fragments of truth in the statement that二,,but this is not to mean that. ..

4) Today it is not unusual for somebody to do something.

5) What people failed to perceive is that.,,

6)Today,…is under strong attack.

7)People often imagine that they can do something simply by doing something

8)No idea is more dangerous than...,which is widely held by. ..

9)Perhaps it is time to reexamine the attitude that...

1)  When asked about..,people usually respond differently. Some people prefer to.,.;Others, however, prefer to.…

2)  People’s views on…vary from person to person. Some hold that... However, others believe that...

3) People may have different opinions on...

3)  When asked about,二,many people think that... But other people believe different

4)  When it comes to...,some people believe that... others argue that the opposite is true. There is probably some reason in bothstatements,but...

5)  When faced with...,quite a few people claim that.二,but other people think of…as...

7) Attitudes towards (drugs) vary from person to person.

8) There are different opinions among people as to...

 

9) Different people hold different attitudes toward(failure).

1) According to a recent study,…

2)A recent survey indicates that... So some people take the view that…Others,however,don't think so.

3) No one can deny the fact that... but.

4)A recent newspaper report on a survey among(students)states that...

6)  One of the(一oys) of something is,and always has been,that...

6)Somebody has offered a fascinating insight into the nature of,

7) According to a major new study, conducted by somebody

7)  One of the most striking things about something/ somebody is that…

8)  Although, the popular idea is that... a recent study shows that.

10) All scientific observations justify the view that...

11) Statistics available suggests that.,.

12)Personal experience teaches us that...

13) There is considerable evidence in favor of…

1) One of the great scientists once remarked,…

2)“Genius is two percent inspiration and ninety-eight percent perspiration”is the opinion held by Edison. This remark has beenconfirmed time and again by more and more people.

3) Many years ago, a great philosopher said that...

4)  There is an Engh、h proverb which says that“Easily come easily  go .

5)  There i,an old saying,“Practice makes progress.”It is the experience of our forefathers,however,it is correct in many caseseven today.古语道:

6) As a popular saying goes,…

7)One of the great writers once. said that... Now it still has a realistic significance.

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