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考博英语写作知识与技巧

2019-08-15

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考博英语写作知识与技巧

开头和结尾段写法

一、开头段【背景/改写+主题句法/问题法/数据法/概要法】

1)主题句法:提出一个论点或论据作为文章要阐述的主题,是读者了解你写作的理由或主要目的。

例如:◆This report summarizes the results of our fourth-quarter sales.【This report summarizes the results of...】

◆One of the most notable phases of the industrial revolution was the rapid growth of cities.【One of the most notable phases of...is/was...】

2)问题法:用提问的方式来引发文章的内容,吸引读者的注意力。

例如:◆Should a scientist be responsible for his discoveries?【Should ... be responsible for ...?】

◆What does it take to succeed in one’s studies or career?【What does it take to succeed in...】

3)数据法:用某些数据来引出文章的内容。

例如:◆The fact that less than 5% of the British population graduate from universities may seem surprising when compared with the American percentage of over 30%.【The fact that+从句(同位语)...may seem surprising when compared with...】

4)概要法:让读者了解文章的主要观点,然后通过举例,或逻辑推理等方法加以佐证。

例如:This report is divided into three main sections:what equipment you need,‚how to use equipment,ƒhow to maintain equipment.【This report is divided into three main sections:...,‚...,ƒ....

 

二、结尾段

1)概括结论:概括上文内容来加深读者对文章观点的理解。

例如:◆From what has been discussed above,we may draw the conclusion that no success can be achieve without laboring.【From what has been discussed above,we may draw the conclusion that +从句...】

◆In summary,we should create such an environment in which each child in his or her own way follows his curiosity where it leads him,develops hisability and talents,pursues his interests and likes.【In summary,we should...】

2)提出展望或期望:对将来的期待或是鼓动读者采取行动。

例如:◆It is essential that effective measure should be taken to redress such inequality.【It is essential that effective measure should be taken to+动词原形...】

◆It is high time that we should urge an immediate end to this phenomenon.【It is high time that we should+动词原形...】

3)强调意义:从更高或新的角度来强调上述的重点性或其深远的意义。

Admittedly,science has create atomic bombs and produced pervasive pollution. But it has transformed the lives of millions of people.【Admittedly,... But...】

 

中间段写法

段落中的主题句:每段包含一个主题句,主题句概括全段意思,其他的句子则围绕主题句加以阐明、补充或论证,这种补充意义的句子称为支持句。【主题句+论证/细节】

 

常用过度词

举例:for example,for instance,that is,to illustrate,specifically,as an illustration,such as

增补:in addition,besides,also,moreover,furthermore,next

排序:first of all=to begin with=in the first place=firstly=first and foremost=first【第一】;second=secondly=in the second place=in addition=besides=also=moreove= furthermore=next【第二】

Ultimately=eventually=finally=at last=thirdly=third【最后】

强调:above all,indeed,of course,in fact,as a matter of fact,in particular

对比、对照:in contrast,on the other hand,in spite of+名词,despite,on the contrary,although

比较:similarly,like,in the same way,at the same time,equally important

让步:after all,it is true that

原因:because+从句;because of+名词,for this reason,owing to,thanks to,due to,since

结果:therefore,as a result,consequently,thus,so

结论:to sum up,to conclude,in short,in a world,in brief,in conclusion,therefore,as has been noted(mentioned,said,stated)above

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