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医学博士英语阅读理解讲解【7】

2019-08-15

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Directions: In this part there are six passages, each of which is followed by five questions. For each question there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.

Passage One

Too much alcohol dulls your senses, but a study in Japan shows that moderate drinkers have a higher IQ than teetotalers.

 

Researchers at the National Institute for Longevity Sciences in Aichi. Prefecture, 250kilometers west of Tokyo, tested the IQs of 2000 people between the ages of 40 and 79. They found that, on average, men who drank moderately — defined as less than 540 milliliters of sake or wine a day had an IQ that was 3. 3 points higher than men who did not drink at all. Women drinkers scored 2. 5 points higher than female teetotalers.

 

The type of alcohol didn't influence the results. The volunteers tried a variety of tipples, which ranged from beer and whisky to wine and sake.

 

The researchers are quick to point out that the results do not necessarily show that drinking will make you more intelligent.

 

"It's very difficult to show a cause-effect relationship, " says senior researcher Hiroshi Shimokata. "We screened subjects for factors such as income and education, but there may be other factors such as lifestyle and nutritional intake. "

 

Shimokata says that people who drink sake, or Japanese rice wine, tend to eat more raw fish.

 

This could be a factor in enhanced intelligence, as fish often contain essential fatty acids that have been linked to brain development. Similarly, wine drinkers eat a lot of cheese, which is not something Japanese people normally consume or buy. Shimokata says the high fat content of cheese is thought to be good for the brain.

 

If alcoholic drinks are directly influencing IQ, Shimokata believes chemicals such as polyphenols could be the critical factor. They are known to have antioxidant properties and other beneficial effects on ageing bodies, such as dilating constricted coronary arteries.

The study is part of n wider research project to find out why brain function deteriorates with age.

 

61. The Japanese study was carried out on ________ .

A. the development of IQ B. the secret of longevity

C. the brain food in a glass D. the amount of healthy drinking

62. The Japanese researchers found a higher IQ in ________.

A. female teetotalers than in male ones B. female drinkers than in male ones

C. moderate drinkers D. teetotalers

63. When he says that it is very difficult to, show cause-effect relationship, Shimokata means that ________ .

A. the study failed to involve such variables as income and education

B. he is doubtful of the findings of the investigation

C. there are some other contributing factors

D. the results were just misleading

64. From Shimokata's mention of fish and cheese we can infer that in enhancing intelligence ________ .

A. sake or wine is a perfect match for fish and cheese

B. they promote the drinking effect of sake or wine

C. they are not as effective as sake and wine

D. sake or wine is not alone

65. Based on the study, Shimokata would say that ________ .

A. intelligence improves with age

B. IQ can be enhanced in one way or another

C. polyphenols in alcohol may boost the brain

D. Alcoholic drinks will make you more intelligent

61. D  本题实际上是关于全文大意的问题。根据第一段及全文大意:日本人这项研究是关于是适量饮酒对10的影响。他们的研究表明,适量饮用某些酒晶,如日本清酒sake,会提高人的智力。选项A指的是1Q发育;B. 长寿的秘密;C大脑的营养在杯中酒;D健康酒量。因此,选项D符合题意,是正确答案。

62. C  根据第二段内容:日本研究人员发现,平均来说,少量饮酒的男性一不到40毫升的青酒或红酒一比从不饮酒的人的智商要高3. 3分。少量饮酒的女性的智商比滴酒不沾的女性的要高2. 5分。选项C指的是少量饮酒者,因此是正确答案。

63. B  根据原文第五、六、七段,当资深研究员Shimokata说很难表明一种因果关系时,他认为提高智商另有其因;他列举了日本人喝米酒时要多吃生鱼,因此推理智商高或许另有原因;因为鱼油里常常含有与大脑发育相关的基础脂肪酸。言外之意,Shimokata 不相信研究结果,选项B符合原文这层意思,因此是正确答案.

64. D  Shimokata提到鱼和奶酪是为了进二步说明米酒和红酒有助于提高智商,但是,人们在喝米酒或红酒时总要同时食用更多的牛鱼或奶酪;想借此说明提高智商可能另有他物。选项D说的就是这个意思。

65. B  根据全文,特别是第七,八两段,Shimokata想说的是:智商可以通过多种方式提高。选项A的意思是智商随着年龄增长会提高,文中没有提到这个内容。选项C的意思是:酒中含有的polyphenols(多酚)可能有助于大脑发育,是其他因素之一,选项C包含了这个意思。选项D含义太广,且不论酒量大小,与原文不符。因此选项B是正确答案。

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