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医学考博英语阅读理解讲解【2】

2019-08-15

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There is a great irony of 21st-century global health: While many hundreds of millions of people lack adequate food as a result of economic inequities, political corruption, or warfare, many hundreds of millions more are overweight to the point of increased risk for diet-related chronic diseases. Obesity is a worldwide phenomenon, affecting children as well as adults and forcing all but the poorest countries to divert scarce resources away from food security to take care of people with preventable heart disease and diabetes.

 

To reverse the obesity epidemic, we must address the fundamental causes. Overweight comes from consuming more food energy than is expended in activity. The cause of this imbalance also is ironic: improved prosperity. People use extra income to eat more and be less physically active. Market economies encourage this. They make people with expendable income into consumers of aggressively marketed foods that are high in energy but low in nutritional value, and of cars, televisions set. And computers that promote sedentary behavior. Gaining weight are good business. Food is particularly big business because everyone eats.

 

Moreover, food is so overproduced that many countries, especially the rich ones that far more than they need, another irony, than the United States, to take an extreme example, most adults—of all ages, incomes, educational levels, and census categories—are overweight. The U. S. food supply provides 3800 kilocalories per person per day, nearly twice as much as required by many adults. Overabundant food forces companies to compete for sales through advertising, health claims, new products, larger portions, and campaigns directed toward children. Food marketing promotes weight gain. Indeed, it is difficult to think of any major industry that might benefit if people ate! Less food; certainly not the agriculture, food product, grocery, restaurant, diet or drug industries. All flourish when people eat more. And all employ armies of Lobbyists to discourage governments from doing anything to inhibit overeating.

 

66. The great irony of 21st century global public health refers to ________ .

A. the cause of obesity and its counteractive measures

B. the insufficient and superfluous consumption of food

C. the seas natural resource and the green of food source

D. the consumption of food and the increased risk for diet-related diseases

67. To address the fundamental cause of the obesity epidemic, according to the passage, is ________ .

A. to improve political and economic management 

B. to cope with the energy imbalance issue

C. to combat diet-related chronic diseases

D. to increase investment in global health

68. As we can learn from the passage, the second irony refers to ________ .

A. affluence and obesity

B. food energy and nutritional value

C. food business and economic prosperity

D. diseases of civilization and pathology of inactivity

69. As a result of the third irony, people ________ .

A. consume 3800 kilocalories on a daily basis

B. complain about food overproduction

C. have to raise their food expenses

D. are driven towards weight gain

70. Which of the following can be excluded as we can understand based on the passage?

A. The economic dimension. B. The political dimension.

C. The humane dimension. D. The dietary dimension.

66. B  首段提到21世纪全球健康的一个巨大讽刺是:While many hundreds of millions of people lack adequate food…many hundreds of millions more are overweight…当数亿的人缺乏足够的食物时,更多的人正过于肥胖。B项说法与之吻合:食物消费的供应不足与过剩。

67. B  第二段开始提到要解决肥胖流行症就必须先应对其根本原Overweight comes from consuming more food energy than is expended in activity. The cause of this imbalance…超重是由于摄入的食物能量超出了在活动中消耗的能量。而这是一种不平衡(imbalance)。因此B项正确。

68. A  第二段提到第二个讽刺是improved prosperityPeople use extra income to eat more and be less physically active. 人们花费额外的收入更多地吃,更少地活动。换句话说就是人们越富裕越肥胖。所以A项正确。affluence富裕。obesity肥胖,肥胖症。

69. D  第三段提到第三个讽刺是food is so overproduced in many countriesOverabundant food forces companies to compete for sales through…Food marketing promotes weight gain. 食品过量迫使企业为提高销售额而竞争。食品的这种市场营销策略促进了人们体重的增长。

70. C  本文提到的食品制造业是经济方面;employ armies of Lobbyists to discourage governments(文章最后一句)是政治方面:人们吃的越来越多,变得越来越胖是饮食方面。只有C项未提及。humane人文的。

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