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硕士研究生英语翻译学习【6】

2019-08-15

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Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

There is a marked difference between the education which every one gets from living with others, and the deliberate educating of the young. In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural and important, but it is not the express reason of the association. (46)It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience, but this effect is not a part of its original motive. Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences; family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to others, etc. (47) Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution. Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output.

 

But in dealing with the young, the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact, gains in importance. (48) While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults. The need of training is too evident and the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account. (49)Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a commonlife we cannot help considering whether or not we are forming the powers which will secure this ability. If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.

 

(50) We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education —that of direct tuition or schooling. In undeveloped social groups, we find very little formal teaching and training. These groups mainly rely for instilling needed dispositions into the young upon the same sort of association which keeps adults loyal to their group.

一、试题具体解析

46) It may be said that the measure of the worth of any social institution is its effect in enlarging and improving experience, but this effect is not a part of its original motive.

【考点】 形式主语,of结构,并列结构

【解析】 复合句。句子主干:It may be said that…that引导的从句是前面形式主语it的指代对象。that从句部分又包含一个由转折连词but连接的并列结构。

【词汇】 measure原意为“量度标准”,这里译为“衡量……的标准”;institution意为“社会机构”;enlarge原意为“扩大,增加”,这里活译为“丰富”;improve原意为“改善,提高”,本文意为“完善”。

【译文】 虽然我们可以说衡量任何一个社会机构价值的标准是其在丰富和完善人生经历方面所起的作用,但这种作用并不是我们最初的动机的组成部分。

47) Only gradually was the by-product of the institution noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor inthe conduct of the institution.

【考点】 倒装结构,并列结构

【解析】 复合句。两个由于only被置于句首引起的部分倒装的句子由一个连词and连接,构成了并列结构。翻译时要掌握这句话的正常语序应该是什么样子的,这样句子结构和成分就很好划分了。

【词汇】 by-product是由一个前缀by-加上product构成的一个合成词,by-这个前缀的意思为“次要的,附带的”,这个单词意为“副产品”;be considered as为一个固定搭配,意为“被视为……”;conduct原意为“行为”,这里转译为“运作”。

【译文】 人们只是逐渐地才注意到机构的这一副产品,而人们把这种作用视为机构运作的指导性因素的过程则更为缓慢。

48) While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults.

【考点】 让步状语从句,比较结构,宾语后置

【解析】 复合句。句子主干:it is not so…as…。句首while引导一个让步状语从句,从句中有个常见结构it is + adj. to do sth.it为形式主语,不定式部分为句子真正的主语。主句部分出现了一个not so… as…的同级比较否定结构。ignore的宾语为the effect of our acts upon their disposition,被介词短语in our contact with them分隔了。

【词汇】 ignore意为“忽视,忽略”;disposition在文中译为“性情”。

【译文】 在与年轻人的接触中我们很容易忽视自己的行为对他们的性情所产生的影响,但仍比不上与成年人打交道时那样容易。

49) Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or not we are forming the powers which will secure this ability.

【考点】 原因状语从句,宾语从句,定语从句

【解析】 复合句。句子主干:we cannot help considering…Since…in a common life部分为原因状语从句。主句部分出现一个固定搭配:cannot help doing sth.情不自禁做某事。而whether or not…为宾语从句修饰consider。宾语从句中又嵌套了一个由which引导的定语从句修饰the powers。翻译时要注意各从句之间的关系。

【词汇】 business原意为“商业,事情”,这里转译为“工作”;secure本意为“确保,保障”,在文中译为“让……获得”。

【译文】 由于我们对年轻人所做的首要工作在于使他们能够在共同生活中彼此相融,因此我们不禁要考虑自己是否在形成让他们获得这种能力的力量。

50) We are thus led to distinguish, within the broad educational process which we have been so far considering, a more formal kind of education—that of direct tuition or schooling.

【考点】 定语从句,插入语,同位语结构

【解析】 句子主干:we are thus led to distinguish… a more formal kind of education…。其中within… considering为插入成分做状语。插入成分中又包含一个由which引导的定语从句修饰process,破折号后面的that… schooling作前面a more formal kind of education的同位语。

【词汇】 lead to原意为“指引,引导”,distinguish意为“区分”;tuition原意为“学费,教导”,这里活译为“讲授”。Schooling意为“学校教育”。

【译文】 这就使我们得以在一直讨论的广义的教育过程中进一步区分出一种更为正式的教育形式,即直接讲授或学校教育。

二、全文翻译

 

本文选自1916Democracy and Education《民主和教育》。

不经意地在相处中彼此学习与有意识地对年轻人进行的教育这两种教育形式之间有着显著的差别。前一种情况下的教育是偶然的,自然而然地发生,并且也起到了很重要的作用,但是这并不是人们参加社团活动的确切原因。46虽然我们可以说衡量任何一个社会机构价值的标准是其在丰富和完善人生经历方面所起的作用,但这种作用并不是我们最初的动机的组成部分。举个例子,宗教社团的创立的初衷是为了保护统治阶级的特权,阻挡一切恶势力。家庭生活是为了满足成员的愿望,保障家庭的长久稳定。在很大程度上,系统劳动缘于对他人的奴役。47人们只是逐渐地才注意到机构的这一副产品,而人们把这种作用视为机构运作的指导性因素的过程则更为缓慢。直至今天,除了某些勤俭节约的价值之外,在工业生活中,世界上的工作借助人类协作这种模式展开,相比较于人们对其物质产出的关注,其所引发的智力情感反应极少被关注。

但是在与年轻人相处的过程中,这种团体合作的行为本身被作为人类的直觉行为得到了重视。48)在与年轻人的接触中我们很容易忽视自己的行为对他们的性情所产生的影响,但仍比不上与成年人打交道时那样容易。培训的需要如此的明显,完成对他们的态度和习惯的改变这件事情如此的紧迫以至于这些原因都不在考虑的范围之内了。49)由于我们对年轻人所做的首要工作在于使他们能够在共同生活中彼此相融,因此我们不禁要考虑自己是否在形成让他们获得这种能力的力量。如果人类的意识提升了,得以发现每个社会机构的根本价值就在于其对人类的显著影响,那么我们就可以相信这些主要是在与年轻人接触的过程中获得的。

50这就使我们得以在一直讨论的广义的教育过程中进一步区分出一种更为正式的教育形式,即直接讲授或学校教育。在不发达的社会群体中,我们发现很少有正规的教育和培训。原始部落主要是通过使成年人保持对部落忠诚的那种团体合作的方式来诱使年轻人的性情朝着他们所希望的那样发展。

 

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