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硕士研究生英语阅读PartB学习【5】

2019-08-15

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Directions:

In the following text, some segments have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks.Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Coinciding with the groundbreaking theory of biological evolution proposed by British naturalist Charles Darwin in the 1860s, British social philosopher Herbert Spencer put forward his own theory of biological and cultural evolution. Spencer argued that all worldly phenomena, including human societies, changed over time, advancing toward perfection. 41) ____________.

American social scientist Lewis Henry Morgan introduced another theory of cultural evolution in the late 1800s. Morgan helped found modern anthropologythe scientific study of human societies, customs and beliefsthus becoming one of the earliest anthropologists. In his work, he attempted to show how all aspects of culture changed together in the evolution of societies.42) _____________.

In the early 1900s in North America, German-born American anthropologist Franz Boasdeveloped a new theory of culture known as historical particularism. Historical particularism, which emphasized the uniqueness of all cultures, gave new direction to anthropology. 43) _____________ .

Boas felt that the culture of any society must be understood as the result of a unique history and not as one of many cultures belonging to a broader evolutionary stage or type of culture. 44) _______________.

Historical particularism became a dominant approach to the study of culture in American anthropology, largely through the influence of many students of Boas. But a number of anthropologists in the early 1900s also rejected the particularist theory of culture in favor of diffusionism. Some attributed virtually every important cultural achievement to the inventions of a few, especially gifted peoples that, according to diffusionists, then spread to other cultures. 45) ________________.

Also in the early 1900s, French sociologist Émile Durkheimdeveloped a theory of culture that would greatly influence anthropology. Durkheim proposed that religious beliefs functioned to reinforce social solidarity. An interest in the relationship between the function ofsociety and culture became a major theme in European, and especially British, anthropology.

[A] Other anthropologists believed that cultural innovations, such as inventions, had a single origin and passed from society to society. This theory was known as diffusionism.

[B] In order to study particular cultures as completely as possible, he became skilled in linguistics, the study of languages, and in physical anthropology, the study of human biology and anatomy.

[C] He argued that human evolution was characterized by a struggle he called the “survival of the fittest,” in which weaker races and societies must eventually be replaced by stronger, more advanced races and societies.

[D] They also focused on important rituals that appeared to preserve a people’s social structure, such as initiation ceremonies that formally signify children’s entrance into adulthood.

[E] Thus, in his view, diverse aspects of culture, such as the structure of families, forms of marriage, categories of kinship, ownership of property, forms of government, technology, and systems of food production, all changed as societies evolved.

[F]Supporters of the theory viewed culture as a collection of integrated parts that work together to keep a society functioning.

[G] For example, British anthropologists Grafton Elliot Smith and W. J. Perry incorrectly suggested, on the basis of inadequate information, that farming, pottery making, and metallurgy all originated in ancient Egypt and diffused throughout the world. In fact, all of these cultural developments occurred separately at different times in many parts of the world.

Part B

一、试题具体分析

41.
【答案】 C
【考点】 上下文的衔接
【解析】 空前谈到Spencer的理论特点,人类社会的进化类似于达尔文的进化论,是一个不断进步的过程。浏览七个选项,C的内容正好与此吻合。故答案为C

42.
【答案】 E
【考点】上下文的衔接
【解析】 该段空前的中心内容谈到与文化相关,接下来也必然与此相关,浏览七个选项,E的内容正好与此吻合。故答案为E

43.
【答案】 A
【考点】 中心理解
【解析】 本段内容较少,但我们可以看出其段落中心是关于人类学不同学说的,选项A满足这一条件,故答案为A

44.
【答案】 B
【考点】中心理解
【解析】 本段中心谈的是Boas的内容,接下来必然是涉及到同一个人,选项B满足这一条件,故答案为B

45.
【答案】 G
【考点】上下文的衔接
【解析】 该段中心内容谈的是diffusionism这一理论,空前的一句话显然是对这一理论的总结,接下来应该是用例子来具体说明,这符合行文规则,G符合此要求,故答案为G

三、全文翻译

在英国自然学家查理斯·达尔文于19世纪60年代提出开创性的生物进化论的同时,英国社会哲学家赫伯特·斯宾塞也提出了自己的生物和文化进化理论。斯宾塞指出世间所有的现象,包括人类社会,都随着时间不断改变,并逐步走向完美。41他说人类的进化都有适者生存这样的特征,在适者生存这场争斗中,弱势种族和社会最终将被更强大,更先进的种族和社会所取代。

19世纪晚期美国社会科学家里维斯·亨利·摩根提出了另一个文化进化理论。摩根帮助创立了现代人类学——对人类社会、习俗和信仰的科学研究,由此成为了最早的人类学家之一。在他的著作中,他尝试着去展示在社会的进化过程中,文化的各个方面是如何一起变化的。42因此,在他看来,文化的不同方面,例如家庭结构、婚姻构成、亲属分类、财产所有权、政府形式、技术和食物生产体系等都随着社会的进化而改变。

20世纪早期在北美,生于德国的美国人类学家弗朗茨·博厄斯提出了一种新的文化理论——历史特殊论。这个理论强调的是所有文化的独特性,为人类学带来了新的方向。43其他的人类学家认为文化改革,例如发明,有一个唯一的起源,并且在社会之间传递。这种理论被看作为传播论。

博厄斯认为任何社会的文化都必须被作为某一独特历史的结果

49

来理解,而不是从属于一个更宽泛的文化进化阶段或类型的多种文化之一。44为了尽可能全面的研究这种特定的文化,他逐渐精通语言学——对语言的研究,以及体质人类学——对人类生物学和解剖学的研究。

历史特殊论能够成为美国人类学文化研究方面的主导理论,绝大部分是由于博厄斯众多学生的影响。但是20世纪早期也有相当数目的人类学家否认文化特殊论,而是赞同传播论。一些人类学家认为,每一个重大的文化成就都归功于少数有天赋的民族的发明创造。根据传播者的看法,这些发明创造后来逐步传递到其他文化中。45例如,英国人类学家Grafton Elliott SmithW. J. Perry在信息缺乏的情况下,错误的提出农耕、陶器制造、冶金都是源于古埃及,然后传播到世界各地。事实上,所有这些文化的发展分别在世界各地的不同时期都曾出现过。

20世纪早期,法国人类学家Émile Durkheim也提出了一种对人类学产生深远影响的文化理论。Durkheim认为宗教信仰有助于加强社会团结。对社会功能和文化之间的关系的兴趣成为了欧洲人类学,尤其是英国人类学的一大主题。

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