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硕士研究生英语阅读PartB学习【4】

2019-08-15

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Directions:

In the following text, some segments have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each ofthe numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

 

The time for sharpening pencils, arranging your desk, and doing almost anything else instead of writing has ended. The first draft will appear on the page only if you stop avoiding the inevitable and sit, stand up, or lie down to write. (41)_______________.

Be flexible. Your outline should smoothly conduct you from one point to the next, but do not permit it to railroad you. If a relevant and important idea occurs to you now, work it into the draft. (42) _______________. Grammar, punctuation, and spelling can wait until you revise. Concentrate on what you are saying. Good writing most often occurs when you are in hot pursuit of an idea rather than in a nervous search for errors.

 

(43) _______________. Your pages will be easier to keep track of that way, and, if you have to clip a paragraph to place it elsewhere, you will not lose any writing on either side.

If you are working on a word processor, you can take advantage of its capacity to make additions and deletions as well as move entire paragraphs by making just a few simple keyboard commands. Some software programs can also check spelling and certain grammatical elements in your writing. (44) _______________. These printouts are also easier to read than the screen when you work on revisions.

 

Once you have a first draft on paper, you can delete material that is unrelated to your thesis and add material necessary to illustrate your points and make your paper convincing. The student who wrote “The A&P as a State of Mind” wisely dropped a paragraph that questioned whether Sammy displays chauvinistic attitudes toward women. (45) _______________.

 

Remember that your initial draft is only that. You should go through the paper many times— and then again—working to substantiate and clarify your ideas. You may even end up with several entire versions of the paper. Rewrite. The sentences within each paragraph should be related to a single topic. Transitions should connect one paragraph to the next so that there are no abrupt or confusing shifts. Awkward or wordy phrasing or unclear sentences and paragraphs should be mercilessly poked and prodded into shape.

 

[A] To make revising easier, leave wide margins and extra space between lines so that you can easily add words, sentences and

corrections. Write on only one side of the paper.

[B] After you have already and adequately developed the body of your paper, pay particular attention to the introductory and concluding paragraphs. It’s probably best to write the introduction last, after you know precisely what you are introducing. Concluding paragraphs demand equal attention because they leave the reader with a final impression.

[C] It’s worth remembering, however, that though a clean copy fresh off a printer may look terrible, it will read only as well as the thinking and writing that have gone into it. Many writers prudently store their data on disks and print their pages each time they finish a draft to avoid losing any material because of power failures or other problems.

[D] It makes no difference how you write, just so you do. Now that you have developed a topic into a tentative thesis, you can assemble your notes and begin to flesh out whatever outline you have made.

[E] Although this is an interesting issue, it has nothing to do with the thesis, which explains how the setting influences Sammy’s decision to quit his job. Instead of including that paragraph, she added one that described Lengel’s crabbed response to the girls so that she could lead up to the A & P “policy” he enforces.

[F] In the final paragraph about the significance of the setting in “A&P” the student brings together the reasons Sammy quit his job by referring to his refusal to accept Lengel’s store policies.

[G] By using the first draft as a means of thinking about what you want to say, you will very likely discover more than your notes originally suggested. Plenty of good writers don’t use outlines at all but discover ordering principles as they write. Do not attempt to compose a perfectly correct draft the first time around.

 

 

一、试题具体分析

41.
答案 D
考点 上下文的衔接
难度系数0.456
【解析】 本段作为文章的首段,主要讲写作最重要的是要开始写,作者甚至夸张的说,站着、坐着,甚至躺着,都不重要,这就正好与选项D中的第一句it makes no differences how you write连接起来。因此答案是D

42.
答案 G
考点 词汇复现+上下文的衔接

难度系数0.369
【解析】 该段空前的内容谈到,让提纲灵活些,不要让提纲限制你的思路,一旦有好的想法就应该马上把它写下来。空后谈到语法、拼写的修正可以先放在一边。空前谈到写作了,空后谈到修改,那么中间显然是初稿的完成,G的内容刚好反映这一点,故答案为G

43.
答案 A
考点 词汇复现+上下文的衔接
难度系数0.529
【解析】 该题缺失内容在段首,因此重点定位其后的信息。空格下文提到,这么做便于你整理每一页的内容,并且不损失写在背面的内容。该句中that way所指代的对象应在空格处填入的内容中寻找。A项中“只在纸的一面写字”(Write on only one side of the paper)与下文“不会损失写在背面的内容”(not lose any writing on the other side)同义复现,含义紧密衔接。A项的第一句“为了便于修改”也与第二段末“将语法等问题留待修改时考虑”相呼应,关键词revise复现。

44.

答案 C
考点 相关词同现+段落主题一致性
难度系数0.481
【解析】 本题缺失内容在第四段中间,上文提到利用软件能够很方便地检查稿子的拼写和语法错误,下文提到在修改过程中,看打印的文稿比看屏幕上的内容更为容易,从这个话题看,空白处应该填入与打印有关的内容,则C选项更符合这一要求。

本题的另一考虑角度:第四段谈到是文字处理器给写作带来的便利,整段内容都与电脑有关,填空的内容必然也离不开与电脑相关的内容。看选项,只有选项C中出现了disks,故答案为C

45.
答案 E
考点 相关词同现+段落主题一致性
难度系数0.616
【解析】该题缺失内容在段尾,上一句话提到一个学生写作的例子,删除了一段关于“怀疑Sammy有大男子主义倾向”的段落。并由此句确定包含专有名词的选项EF。本段的首句提到,在写作中要删去与主题无关的材料,因此E选项符合要求,而且,选项F只提到对一个段落的写作,相对来说离主旨较远。

本题的另一考虑角度:该段谈的是对文章的修改的一种态度,要无情的删除一些不相干的信息,接着后面的事例是对这一中心的说明。通过A&P,我们可以确定本题答案在EF间,而E中含有的关键词this是对上文的承接,故答案为E。确定答案E后,我们马上可以排除F

二、全文翻译

不伏案写作,只忙着削铅笔、整理书桌等杂事的时代结束了。只有当你不再逃避,坐着、站着或者躺着来写作,论文第一稿才能出炉。41你选择什么方式进行写作都无所谓,只要写就可以。如果你的论文已经有了初步观点,那就可以着手收集笔记,让论文纲要血肉丰满起来。

要保持灵活。纲要应该引领你在观点之间顺利穿梭,但是不要让它牵着鼻子走。现在如果一个相关的重要观点出现在脑海中,你也要把它写进初稿。42将初稿视为一个思考自己意欲言何的媒介,你很可能会发现一些笔记中没有包含的东西。许多优秀的作者根本不用概要,而是在写作过程中发现“部署的原则”。不要妄想第一稿就可以完美无暇。语法,标点,和拼写都可以等到修改时再说。将精力集中在你要表达的观点上。优秀的论文经常是在你紧抓住一个观点不放时写出的,而不是在你紧张地寻找错误时。

43为了修改方便,页边的空白以及行距要留的大一些,这样你很容易增字添句及进行修改。在纸的一面上写。用这种方式更容易找到顺序,而且如果你要剪掉一段放在别处,也不会把反面的东西连带着剪下来。

如果你使用文字处理软件写作,可以利用它的功能,只需几个简单的键盘命令,就可以进行增删或移动一整段。有些软件程序还可以在写作过程中检查拼写和语法错误。44不过一定要记住,刚从打印机上拿下来的一页纸可能看起来很糟,但请将它视为你倾注进去思想的表达。许多作家很谨慎地把材料都堆在书桌上,每次写完一稿,都要用打印机打出来,以免因为停电或其他问题造成材料丢失。而且在修改时,看打印稿也要比看屏幕容易。

一旦完成初稿,你就可以删除那些与论文不相关的材料,同时增加必要的阐释论文观点的材料,使它更有说服力。一名写《A&P》(约翰厄普代克的短篇小说,一译《大西洋和太平洋商场》)的学生明智地删掉了一段质疑萨米对女孩子表现出大男子主义的文字。45尽管这个观点很有趣,但跟论文无甚关联,因为论文旨在解释背景怎样影响萨米做出辞职的决定。作者没有把这段写进论文,而是增加了一段文字,描写伦格尔(Lengel)对女孩的乖戾反应,并由此得出他执行的A&P“政策”。

切记,初稿就是如此而已。你的论文应该一遍遍修改,对所持观点进行证实和阐明。最后你甚至可能有若干个完整的论文版本。重写。每段中的句子都应该服务于一个观点。两个段落之间的连接应该有过渡,避免产生突兀或疑惑之感。拗口或多余的措辞,或表意不清的句段,都应该毫不手软地进行修改,做到简洁明了。

[B] 当你已经清晰地、充分地展开正文部分后,应特别注意开始和结尾段落。开始部分或许放到最后写会更好,因为你已经很清楚自己到底要介绍什么。结尾段落也同样需要注意,它将给读者留下最后的印象。

[F] 在最后一段关于讲述A&P环境的重要性时,这个学生提到萨米拒绝接受兰格尔的方针,引出了他辞职的原因。

 

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