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硕士研究生英语翻译学习【4】

2019-08-15

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Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

 

The study of law has been recognized for centuries as a basic intellectual discipline in European universities. However, only in recent years has it become a feature of undergraduate programs in Canadian universities. (46)Traditionally, legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers, rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person. Happily, the older and more continental view of legal education is establishing itself in a number of Canadian universities and some have even begun to offer undergraduate degrees in law.

 

If the study of law is beginning to establish itself as part and parcel of a general education, its aims and methods should appeal directly to journalism educators. Law is a discipline which encourages responsible judgment. On the one hand, it provides opportunities to analyze such ideas as justice, democracy and freedom. (47) On the other, it links theseconcepts to everyday realities in a manner which is parallel to the links journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news.For example, notions of evidence and fact, of basic rights and public interest are at work in the process of journalistic judgment and production just as in courts of law. Sharpening judgment by absorbing and reflecting on law is a desirable component of a journalist’s intellectual preparation for his or her career.

 

(48) But the idea that the journalist must understand the law more profoundly than an ordinary citizen rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.Politics or, more broadly, the functioning of the state, is a major subject for journalists. The better informed they are about the way the state works, the better their reporting will be. (49) In fact, it is difficult to see how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution can do a competent job on political stories.

 

Furthermore, the legal system and the events which occur within it are primary subjects for journalists. While the quality of legal journalism varies greatly, there is an undue reliance amongst many journalists on interpretations supplied to them by lawyers. (50) While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories, it is preferable for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgments.These can only come from a well-grounded understanding of the legal system.

一、试题具体分析

46) Traditionally,/ legal learning has been viewed in such institutions as the special preserve of lawyers,/ rather than a necessary part of the intellectual equipment of an educated person.

【考点】 被动结构,并列连词,of结构

【解析】 简单句。句子主干:legal learning has been viewed as the special preserve of lawyers。其中谓语是现在完成时的被动语态,翻译时可译成被动句或者主动句。如果译成主动句,谓语后的介词短语in such institutions在语法上作状语,但在含义上,其为动作的发出者,即主语,因此在翻译时可把介词短语转换成名词,译成汉语句子的主语。谓语view… as…常译成“把……看成是……”。句首副词作状语。并列连词rather than连接并列的名词短语the special preservea necessary part,译为“……而不是……”,a necessary part后有两个of短语作后置定语,翻译时应该按照汉语表达方式译成前置定语。

【词汇】 such institutions指上文中的Canadian universities,因此译为“这些大学,这类大学”。special preserve此处表示的是“专属,特权”之意。intellectual equipment“知识储备”。

【译文】 长久以来,法律知识在这类学校里一直被视为律师们所专有的,而不是一个受教育者的知识素养的必要组成部分。

47) On the other,/ it links these concepts to everyday realities/ in a manner which is parallel to the links/ journalists forge on a daily basis as they cover and comment on the news.

【考点】 指代,嵌套式定语从句,状语从句,动宾结构

【解析】 复合句。句子主干:it links these concepts to everyday realities,代词it指代上文提到的lawin a manner 在句中作状语,翻译时可根据汉语表达需要将其前置。which引导的定语从句修饰manner,其主干是which is parallel to the links,后面又嵌套了一个省略引导词that的定语从句,修饰the links,即(that) journalists forge on a daily basis。此外,which引导的定语从句中有一个状语on a daily basis和一个状语从句as they…,在翻译时都需要前置。这样,which引导的定语从句中嵌套了定语从句和状语从句。此类嵌套式的复杂句式可采用拆译法,即译成“这(种做法)”。

【词汇】 parallel to应译为“类似于”;forge的含义包括“锻造、伪造、达成、形成”,这里forge links应译为“建立,形成联系”。covernews搭配时,译为“报道(新闻)”。

【译文】 另一方面,这一学科把这些概念结合到日常生活中,这与新闻记者每天报道和评论新闻时的做法是相同的。

48) But the idea/ that the journalist must understand the law moreprofoundly than an ordinary citizen/ rests on an understanding of the established conventions and special responsibilities of the news media.

【考点】 同位语从句,比较结构,并列结构,of结构

【解析】 复合句。句子主干:But the idea rests on an understandingthat引导的从句是idea的同位语。与定语从句的翻译很相似,如果同位语从句较简单,可采用合译,如:……这种观点;也可采用拆译法,如:……,这一观点。本句的翻译采取后一种方法。第一个of介词短语在understanding后作后置定语,而of the news media又是前面两个并列的名词短语established conventions and special responsibilities的后置定语,翻译时都应前置。

【词汇】 rest on原意为“停留在”,但在句中常取其抽象含义“取决于”;established译为“既定的,业已确定的”。

【译文】 新闻记者应比普通公民更加透彻地了解法律,而这种看法是基于他们对新闻媒体业已确定的规约和特殊责任的理解。

49) In fact, it is difficult to see/ how journalists who do not have a clear grasp of the basic features of the Canadian Constitution/ can do a competent job on political stories.

【考点】 it作形式主语,宾语从句,定语从句

【解析】 复合句。句子主干:it is difficult to see…,该句子中it是形式主语,真正的主语是后面的不定式,因此翻译时形式主语it不必翻译,直接将不定式的内容译出。不定式结构to see后是how引导的宾语从句作宾语,其主干是how journalists...can do a competent job on political stories,其中who引导的定语从句修饰journalists,翻译时应前置。

【词汇】 see应译为“想象,设想”;have a clear grasp应译为“清晰领会”;the basic features译为“基本特征;基本要点”;do a competent jobcompetent由形容词转换为动词,译为“胜任工作”;stories根据上下文应选择“新闻报道”这个意思。

【译文】 事实上,很难设想那些对加拿大宪法的基本要点缺乏清晰了解的新闻记者何以能胜任政治新闻的报道工作。

50) While comment and reaction from lawyers may enhance stories,/ it is preferable/ for journalists to rely on their own notions of significance/ and make their own judgments.

【考点】 状语从句,形式主语

【解析】 复合句。句子主干:it is preferable to rely on their own notions of significance and make their own judgmentsit为形式主语,不定式为真正主语,翻译时将不定式的内容直接译出。While引导的是让步状语从句,译成“虽然……,尽管……”。

【词汇】 preferable意为“更可取的,更好的”;enhance意为“提高,丰富,完善”,这里为了使意思更加明确,应增译为“提高……的质量”;notion意为“观念,理解,看法”。

【译文】 尽管律师的见解和反应会提高报道的质量,但新闻记者最好凭借他们自己对重要性的理解自行做出判断。

二、全文翻译

几个世纪以来,对法律的研究一直被看成是欧洲各国大学的一门基础知识学科。然而,只是在最近几年它才成为加拿大大学本科专业的一个特色。46长久以来,法律知识在这类学校里一直被视为律师们所专有的,而不是一个受教育者的知识素养的必要组成部分。可喜的是,加拿大的许多大学正在树立更传统、更具欧洲大陆特色的法律教育观点,有些大学甚至已经开始授予法律学士学位。

如果有关法律的研究正在开始成为普通教育的重要组成部分,那么它的目标和方法应该会立刻吸引新闻学教育者。法律是一门鼓励进行负责任的判断的学科。一方面,它为分析像公正、民主以及自由这样的概念提供机会;47另一方面,这一学科把这些概念结合到日常生活中,这与新闻记者每天报道和评论新闻时的做法是相同的。比如,有关证据和事实、基本权利和公众利益这样的概念在新闻判断和新闻制作过程中就如同在法庭上一样发挥作用。通过研读并思考法律来提高判断力是一名新闻记者为其事业应该做的一项知识准备。

48新闻记者应比普通公民更加透彻地了解法律,而这种看法是基于他们对新闻媒体业已确定的规约和特殊责任的理解。政治,或者更广泛一点,国家的职能,是新闻记者报道的一个主要方面。他们对国家运作的方式了解越多,他们的报道就越优秀。49事实上,很难设想那些对加拿大宪法的基本要点缺乏清晰了解的新闻记者何以能胜任政治新闻的报道工作。

此外,法律体系以及其中发生的事件是新闻记者报道的主题。虽然与法律有关的新闻报道的性质变化很大,但是许多新闻记者都过分依赖律师提供给他们的解释。50尽管律师的见解和反应会提高报道的质量,但新闻记者最好凭借他们自己对重要性的理解自行做出判断。要做到这些,只能依靠对法律体系深入准确的理解。

 

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