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如何应对雅思阅读是非无判断题

2019-08-10

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1. 关于“False”和“Not Given”的解释 (An Explanation of “False” and “Not Given”)

Students generally find this type of exercise rather difficult. One reason is that they are used to doing true and false exercises where the false covers false and not given. Then when they come to do true, false or not given, they cannot make the distinction between the three different types of contradiction and not given. It is therefore important that students are able to understand what false means in true, false and not given. There are three types of contradictions: 
学生通常发现这种题型很难。其中的原因之一是这些学生习惯于做true和false题目,其中的false涵盖了false和not given两种情况。所以当学生在做true, false和 not given的题目时他们无法区分三个不同种类的矛盾对立状况和”not given”的区别。因此,学生要理解”false”的含义。总共有三种矛盾对立状况:
statements which are the opposite of the original text. 
命题与原文内容对立(相反)。
statements which are the opposite of the original text, because they are negative. 
命题与原文对立(相反),因为命题否定原文内容。
statements where the information is not the opposite or negative, but the information in the statement contradicts that given in the text. 
命题信息既不对立(相反)也不否定,但是和原文内容矛盾。
 Look at the examples below relating to the text and exercises:
Example 1
原文:Hurricanes have winds of at least 74 miles per hour.
题目:Hurricanes are winds with the speed of up to 74 miles per hour.
分析:由于原文中的核心内容是“at least 74 miles per hour”,而题目中是“up to 74 miles per hour”。因此,这就是False的第一种情况:命题与原文内容对立(相反)。
 Example 2
原文:As forecasting improved communities were no longer surprised by hurricanes and could take measures to evacuate ahead of the storm. While destruction still continues, the number of deaths in hurricanes has dropped significantly.
题目:The destruction caused by hurricanes has ceased due to improvements in forecasting.
分析:原文的核心内容是“While destruction still continues”,而题目中的内容是“The destruction caused by hurricanes has ceased”。因此,这就是False的第二种情况:命题否定原文内容。
 Example 3
原文:In 1609, a fleet of ships carrying settlers from England to Virginia USA was struck by a hurricane. Some of the ships were damaged and part of the fleet grounded on Bermuda, an isolated nation in the Atlantic. These passengers became the first people to live on Bermuda. 
题目:The first people to live on Bermuda were settlers who chose to live there as alternative to England.
分析:通过原文和题目比较我们发现:没有明显的对立和否定的词汇出现。而是通过句式结构的转换产生了题目和文章信息的矛盾。因此,这就是False的第三种情况。
那么,not given是如何判断呢?我们再来看一个例子:
 Example 4
原文:The Mayans also showed their respect for hurricanes by building their major settlements away from the hurricane-prone coast-line. 
题目:The Mayans lost many of their major settlements because of hurricanes.
分析:尽管题目和原文中有对应的词出现:The Mayans和major settlements,但是题目中的因果关系在文章中并没有体现。也没于出现有关“lost”的相应表述。因此我们可以判断此题为not given。
 2. What is the keyword? 什么是关键词
Select ONE keyword from each of the following: 
从以下的句子中划出一个关键词:
Networking is not a modern idea. 
People fall into two basic categories. 
All teachers are cynics. 
The first piece of Hesse’s art has little effect on visitors to the gallery. 
The New Forest has already been made into a National Park. 
Suggested answers:
参考答案:
not 
two 
all 
little or perhaps first 
already 
The suggested answers I’ve given may not seem that obvious to the students who would possibly consider keywords such as 'modern' or 'New Forest' as more significant. However, the keywords shown have a greater significance in terms of the meaning of the whole statement and illustrate a number of traps in the test. For instance:
我所给出的参考答案又有可能对学生来说不是那么明显。学生有可能认为诸如”modern”或”New Forest” 这一类关键词更重要一些。但是,根据整个题目的意义来说,参考答案所给出的关键词更加重要,而且体现了考试出题的陷阱。请看以下例子的分析: 
'not' makes the statement negative as opposed to possibly being positive in the text 
'two' determines a specific number of categories which may differ in the text. 
'all' determines that every teacher is a cynic and not a proportion of. 
'little' has a negative connotation as opposed to 'a little' another one to watch out for is 'few' and 'a few' 
'already' shows that the New Forest was made into a National Park in the past and is not a future proposal i.e. an indication of past, present or future time. 
These examples hence illustrate the importance of looking out for: negativity, a specific number, the whole or a proportion of, positive and negative connotation and reference to time. Other ones to watch out for include:
这些例子搜寻以下关键词的重要性:否定词,具体的数字,限定范围的词,具有肯定或否定意义的词和时间指示词。其他的需要搜寻的关键词包括:
l        Modals e.g. words like must, should, have to (varying degrees of obligation or certainty) 
情态动词(表示不同程度的义务和确定性)
l        Adverbs of frequency e.g. sometimes, always 
频率副词,如sometimes, always
l        Words such as most, some, all 
诸如most, some, all等限定词
 3. 同义转换能力 (Paraphrasing Ability) 
A paraphrase is a restatement of a paragraph, sentence, or word.
我们通过对一道TRUE/YES考题的分析来掌握同义转换能力。
EXAMPLE
The original sentence (文章原句):
“Until recently, criminologists could not afford to analyze DNA evidence for all homicide cases.”
An effective paraphrase of this sentence(题目中的同义转换):
“Crime labs now can use DNA for all murder cases.”
NOTE: This paraphrase utilizes synonyms to replace key words. Some are very close (DNA vs. DNA evidence and homicide vs. murder), while others take more liberties (criminologists vs. crime labs and could not vs. now can). The essential meaning has been retained, however, despite these significant changes.
 通过上述的分析,朗阁海外考试研究中心总结出以下四种同义词转换技巧:
◆ replace a Phrase with a Word (or a Word with a Phrase) 单词词组转换
Until recently转换成了now,criminologists转换成了Crime labs
◆ Start the Sentence Differently 句型结构转换
原句采用了Until recently……criminologists could not的结构, 而在题目中的运用了Crime labs now can……的结构
◆ Replace a Word with a Synonym 同义词转换
同义词转换包含了词汇转换的内容,但更注重的是对于单词本身的替换。
上面例子中最明显的同义词替换就是homicide和murder。另外analyze和use的替换也属于这种情况。
◆ Change Passive into Active Voice/Negative Slant to Positive 主动被动转换/ 否定肯定转换
这种转换方式和句型结构的转换有相似的地方,但更注重表达方式的理解。如”until recently……could not afford to analyze……” 转换成了”……now can use……”

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