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国内外直升机水下逃生训练的简述【1】

2019-06-29

 

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国内外直升机水下逃生训练的简述Brief introduction of underwater escape training for helicopters at home and abroad

2017年瑞思科技为中海油引进满足OPTIO官方要求的HUET模拟器

In 2017, Reese Technology introduced huet simulator to CNOOC to meet the official requirements of optio.【China National Offshore Oil Corp. 中国海洋石油总公司】

 

直升机水下逃生训练是锻炼直升机驾驶员和空乘人员在直升机因事故坠落水时的快速应变能力,使其能够正确判断逃生路线,采取正确的逃生程序和方法,提高生存几率的安全培训。

Helicopter underwater escape training is to train helicopter pilots and flight attendants in the rapid response ability of helicopter drivers and flight attendants when helicopters fall into the water because of accidents, so that they can correctly judge the escape route, adopt correct escape procedures and methods, and improve the survival probability of safety training.

 

在调查国外2000年至2012年期间发生的97次海上直升机坠落事件中,共涉及486名人员,其中159人死亡,生存率在68%。在直升机坠机事件中,空乘人员自察觉事故发生到坠机的响应时间平均为15秒左右,70%的直升机坠入水中后将在10秒内倾覆,所以快速的逃离直升机舱是生存下来的必要技能,事实证明,直升机水下逃生训练可以有效拯救生命,据统计,接受过HUET培训的人员在直升机坠机事故中死亡率约为8%,而没有接受过HUET培训人员死亡率上升到20%。目前,绝大多数欧美国家都强制要求空乘人员上岗前要接受权威机构 认证的直升机水下逃生训练课程并取得相应资质。

For 97 times in the marine helicopter crashes abroad from 2000 to 2012, a total of 486 people were involved, 159 of whom died, with a survival rate of 68%. In the helicopter crash incident, the average response time from the flight attendant to the crash is about 15 seconds, and 70% of the helicopters will capsize within 10 seconds after falling into the water, so escaping quickly from the helicopter cabin is a necessary skill to survive. Facts have proved that underwater helicopter escape training can effectively save lives. According to statistics, the mortality rate of personnel trained by huet in helicopter crash accidents is about 8%. The mortality rate for those who have not received huet training has risen to 20 per cent. At present, most European and American countries force flight attendants to accept the helicopter underwater escape training course certified by the authority before taking on duty and obtain the corresponding qualification.

 

 

 

 

 

 

国际直升机水下逃生训练International Helicopter Underwater Escape Training

 

直升机水下逃生训练按照直升飞机用途分为民用和军用两种。以下为大家介绍一下在爱尔兰海事学院OPTIO认证的直升机水下逃生训练(带EBS紧急呼吸系统)相关的培训内容。

The underwater escape training of helicopters can be divided into civilian and military according to the use of helicopters. The following is an introduction to the underwater escape training of helicopters (with EBS Emergency Breath System) certified by optio at the Irish Maritime Institute.

 

坠机准备训练Crash preparation training

直升机水下逃生训练无佩戴EBS系统Helicopter underwater escape training without wearing EBS system

 

在实践中,学员要在陆地上进行准备工作,所有人要接受直升机紧急迫降的注意事项教学。在开始要全部穿戴直升机救生衣和EBS设备(非模拟设备),并执行下面4个关键步骤:

In practice, students have to prepare on land, and everyone should receive the attention of helicopter emergency landing. At the beginning, wear all helicopter lifejackets and EBS devices (non-analog devices), and perform the following four key steps:

  1. 潜水适应训练,学员着装顺一根固定杆向下潜水约2到3米,分憋气和戴EBS训练,教员可以观察学员尤其是不会游泳学员的水下情况,学员按教员指示上浮。

Diving adaptation training, students dress down a fixed rod diving about 2 to 3 meters, hold breath and wear EBS training, so that the instructor can observe the underwater situation of the students, especially for those who cannot swim, the students float according to the instructions of the teacher.

  1. 乘机训练,学员要学会直升机安全带的佩戴和释放,这个技能很好学习;学会识别最近的逃生出口(窗口),观察机舱整体情况。

In aircraft training, the participants will learn to wear and release the helicopter safety belt. This skill is very good to learn;Learn to identify the nearest escape exit(window)and observe the overall situation of the engine room.

  1. 支撑姿势训练,在坠机时保持正确的姿势和逃生姿势并形成习惯,可以减少直升机坠落水面或陆地的重力冲击和再次翻转冲击。

Support posture training, maintain the correct posture and escape position and form habits during the crash, which can reduce the helicopter falling to the surface of the water or land gravity impact and flip impact again.

  1. 水下逃生姿势训练,学员一只手要放在安全带释放扣上,另外一只手要按在最近的出口参考点上。避免乘员在直升机颠覆后迷失方向。

For underwater escape posture training, students should put one hand on the releasing buckle of the safe belt and the other hand should be pressed on the nearest exit reference point. Avoid the crew losing their way after the helicopter is subverted.

 

疏散训练Evacuation training

此训练内容是模拟直升机着陆后,人员找到救生艇并释放,在水下逃生后, 疏散到救生筏的过程。我在这个过程中会了如何在水中采取保暖姿势,组织团队合作定点待救,如何团队合作进行水上移动等规范操作。另外,最关键也是培训师再三与学员强调的是要时刻保持乐观积极的心态,团队要有领导者,所有行动要按照领导者的指挥,发现救生艇后,要按次序协作蹬筏。蹬筏后还有很多细节培训内容,这里就不多叙述了。

This training is to simulate the helicopter landing. Personnel find the lifeboat and release. After the underwater escape, personnel evacuate to the process of the life raft. In this process, I will learn how to take a warm posture in the water, organize team cooperation to be saved and work as a team to carry out water movement by other standard operations. In addition, the most important thing is that the trainer and the students repeatedly emphasize that they should always be optimistic and positive, that the team should have a leader, that all actions should be directed by the leader, and that after discovering the lifeboat, they should work together to pedal the raft in order. After the raft there are a lot of details of the training content, here is not much description.

 

EBS实操 emergency breath system操作

佩戴EBS系统直升机水下逃生训练the helicopter escape training under the water with wearing EBS system

 

EBS分两种,一种带气囊,靠自身呼气进行再呼吸,大约可维持2分钟呼吸。另一种带小型气瓶,约可以维持3分钟呼吸。学会佩戴和适应呼吸,咬嘴在水下一定要咬紧密合,否则会呛水。

EBS is divided into two types: one with an airbag, and breathing again by exhaling itself, which can last for about 2 minutes; the other with a small cylinder can last about 3 minutes to breathe. Learn to wear and adapt to breathing. Biting the mouth under the water must bite tight, otherwise it will choke water.

 

模拟直升机部分倾覆水中逃生训练Escape training in partially capsized Water of simulated helicopter

 

在有效模拟直升机倾覆的训练中给学员一个熟悉环境的过程,分步骤执行来建立应对事故时的信心并掌握逃生技能。

In the effective simulation of helicopter capsizing train, students are familiar with the process of the environment, building confidence in dealing with accidents by step and mastering escape skills.

 

  1. 学员不装备EBS,模拟器不安装窗户,按照指定逃生口从半倾覆的模拟器中逃生。

Students do not equip the EBS, simulator without windows and escape from the half-capsized simulator according to the specified escape port.

  1. 学员装备EBS,模拟器不安装窗户,按照指定逃生口从半倾覆的模拟器中逃生。

Students equip with EBS, simulator without installing windows and escape from the half-capsized simulator according to the specified escape port.

  1. 学员装备EBS,模拟器安装窗户,按照指定逃生口从半倾覆的模拟器中逃生。在这个步骤里学员要学习如何快速释放窗户或者舱门。

Students equip with EBS, simulator with installing windows and escape from the half-capsized simulator according to the specified escape port. In this step, students learn how to release windows or doors quickly.

 

模拟直升机全部倾覆逃生训练Simulation helicopter overturning escape training

直升机坠落入水后由于重心偏移,入水后会发生翻转倾覆,一般这个过程只有10秒左右,在直升机翻转状态相对稳定后就是逃生的最佳时机,该 过程也分三个步骤来训练。

After the helicopter falls into the water due to the deviation of the center of gravity, it will overturn after entering the water. Generally, this process is only about 10 seconds. After the helicopter flipping state is relatively stable, it is the best time to escape, and the process is also trained in three steps.

  1. 学员不装EBS,模拟器不安装窗户,模拟器翻转,按指定逃生口从倾覆的模拟器中逃生。

Students do not install ebs, simulator without windows and simulator flip, according to the specified escape port to escape from the capsized simulator.

  1. 学员装备EBS,模拟器不安装窗户,模拟器翻转,按指定逃生口从倾覆的模拟器中逃生。

Students equipped with EBS, simulator without installing windows and simulator flip, according to the specified escape port to escape from the capsized simulator.

  1. 学员装备EBS,模拟器安装窗户,模拟器翻转,按指定逃生口从倾覆的模拟器中逃生。随后,学员要将救生衣充气释放,游到用航空绞车模拟的海上直升机救援点。

Students equip with EBS, simulator with installing window and simulator flip, according to the specified escape port to escape from the capsized simulator. Then, the student will inflate and release the lifejacket and swim to the rescue point of the sea helicopter simulated by an aviation winch.

 

军事训练的浅谈A brief talk on military training

国外军事训练模拟器及训练场景The Simulator of Foreign Military Training And Training Scene

相对于民用飞机空乘驾驶人员,军事人员需要定制化的模拟设备,更多科目的训练,充足训练时间及更高的相关技能要求。模拟设备必须与实际型号飞机内部机构相同,按1:1比例制作,如,门窗尺寸和位置、释放方式,直升机内部军事设备放置点和尺寸都需严格按实际型号还原等等。其他配套设备如配置的相关吊机需要有第三方权威机构的可载人认证,以满足在高强度的军事训练课中模拟救援行动和速降作业时安全性的要求,另外对军事人员最终训练效果的考核也同样更加严格。

Compared with civil aircraft flight attendants, military personnel need customized simulation equipment, more subject training, sufficient training time and higher related skills requirements. The simulation equipment must be the same as the internal mechanism of the actual model aircraft, made in the proportion of 1:1, such as the size and position of doors and windows, the release mode, the placement point and size of the military equipment inside the helicopter should be restored strictly according to the actual model and so on. Other supporting equipment, such as the relevant cranes, need to have the manned certification of the third party authority in order to meet the safety requirements of simulated rescue operations and rapid drop operations in high-intensity military training courses, and the final training effect of military personnel is also more strictly evaluated.

 

目前,国际上,所有相关军事人员无论是空乘还是驾驶,都必须首先参加相关各不同规格的HUET训练,以提高事故中的生存几率。

At present, all relevant military personnel, globally, either flight attendants or driving, must at first, participate in different specifications of huet training in order to improve the survival rate of accidents.

 

希望可以给国内相关人员有一点启发。这种水下逃生训练对所有涉及飞行作业人员和空乘人员都是必须的,包括乘坐固定翼飞机,一旦未能及时弹射逃生,迫降时飞行人 员也应当具备逃生自救技能。即便是参与最基础的HUET训练,也能提高生存率,军事应用会更加意义重大,拯救的是更多人的生命!

I hope it can give some inspiration to the relevant personnel in China. This kind of underwater escape training is necessary for all flight operators and flight attendants, including on fixed-wing aircraft. In the event of failure to eject and escape in time, pilots should also have the ability to escape and save themselves at the time of forced landing. Even participating in the most basic huet training can improve survival, military applications will be more significant, saving more lives!

 

结论conclusion

 

综上所述,直升机水下逃生训练和其他任何安全培训一样,旨在通过最科学最充分的训练手段,使培训人员掌握应对事故时所必须掌握的技能,达到防患于未然的最佳效果。

To sum up, helicopter underwater escape training, like any other safety training, aims to enable trainers to master the skills they must master when dealing with accidents through the most scientific and adequate training means, so as to achieve the best effect of preventing accidents.

 

工欲善其事,必先利其器。“利其器”的进程越短,就越能够尽早地“善其事”。笔者认为国内在HUET相关领域尚处在一个起步阶段,全球各大培训及安全培训机构、模拟设备制造商以及OPITI等标准认证组织拥有超过25年的丰富的培训、认证和模拟设备制造、设计经验,这正是我国目前紧缺的软硬件资源。因此,在培训方法和组织机构、设备制造和使用上,国内应充分利用和借鉴现有的国际资源这一“利器”,来完善和满足我国的HUET乃至所有的安全培训领域的需求。

If you want to do anything, you must make it easy.. The shorter the process of "altruism", the more "good things" can be done as soon as possible. The author believes that the domestic huet related fields are still in its infancy, and the major training and safety training institutions in the world, simulation equipment manufacturers and OPITI and other standard certification organizations have more than 25 years of rich training, certification and simulation equipment manufacturing and design experience. This is the shortage of software and hardware resources in our country at present. Therefore, in the training methods and organizations, equipment manufacturing and use, the domestic should make full use of and draw lessons from the existing international resources as a "sharp weapon" to improve and meet the needs of China's huet and even all the safety training fields.

 

中国现在还没有立法强制要求空乘人员接受HUET培训并持资质上岗,甚至整个国内安全领域培训行业还处于管理较为混乱的状态,与国际水平差距较大,希望相关法律法规能够尽早出台,为我国的安全培训事业,更是为了在事故中能挽救更多的生命。

At present, China has no legislation to force flight attendants to receive huet training and be qualified to take up posts, and even the entire domestic security training industry is still in a state of chaos in management, which is quite different from the international level. It is hoped that the relevant laws and regulations can be issued as soon as possible for not only the safety of training cause in our country, but also more lives saving in the accident.

 

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